किशोर महिला स्वादिष्ट रूप से अपने बड़े मुर्गा का आनंद लेती है जब तक कि वह अपनी बिल्ली को भरता नहीं है. मेरी कॉरपेंट पत्नी की यह अश्लील कठोर उत्तेजना महिला का पुनरावृत्ति.https://loveporn.xxx/ मुझे स्ट्रोक और अपने डिक को स्पर्श करने दो.https://jizzporn.xxx/ भाग्यशाली काले दोस्त पैसे के लिए एक खराब सफेद चलने चूसने के बाद श्यामला गृहिणियों को रिवर्स में फिल्माया गया. बिग एशियाई कुत्ते शैली बड़ा मुर्गा लोलो स्टार, Faere Adele, माउथवॉश में जेड ब्रायंट.https://www.redtube.com/ किशोर शौकिया छोटे स्तन छात्रावास नर्स पैसे के लिए भीख माँगती है. Busty Milf Nikky सपने के साथ गेटअवे सेक्स नाइट क्लब समूह नृत्य और वीआईपी ब्रंच के साथ संभव है.https://www.handjobs-xxx.com/
Best Sports Betting SitesTop 10 Betting SitesLINKS
us-ca

Usajobs resume builder or upload betteryou vitamin d –

Looking for:

Usajobs resume builder or upload betteryou vitamin d
Click here to ENTER

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Before you start creating a brand new resume to apply for a federal government position, you need to choose the way to build it. The former has a number of advantages over the latter. It will make searching and evaluating your resume easier for federal human resources specialists. Second, the resume builder allows you to duplicate your resume, which is very helpful when you need to upgrade the document or tailor it to a specific position.

Offering you to use its federal resume builder, USAJOBS provide you with a professional resume writing instrument, which is worth trying out. For your resume to be searchable and efficient, take your time to learn the subtleties of the federal resume builder USAJOBS has created. We have come up with the top 4 tips that will help you avoid the common mistakes that often prevent the candidates from being recognized as qualified for the job.

Read the announcement carefully! Before appl ying for a position, go to the Qualifications section in the vacancy announcement and preview the vacancy announcement questions.

And more detailed Qualifications list for a Strategic Marketing Analyst position :. As we can see, Qualifications requirements may vary depending on GS position, education, expert level skills or other specific knowledge relevant to a job announcement.

So make sure to select a corresponding answer to each question prior to appl ying for a job posting. This is indeed a tedious task but it is totally worth the effort. Although having similar titles, the different job announcement will be using different keywords to describe their requirements for the candidate.

Keep your resume brief, describe your work experience and education relevant to the position you apply for. The advantage of the resume builder is that you get a consistent federal cv, which can be found by a recruiter using a keyword search. Building a resume that is perfectly in tune with the specific announcement will help your application score more points in the competition.

It is true that a resume should normally be kept brief but with the federal government resumes, it is all about the perfect balance between being concise and being informative. This shows how literally complete your resume is. Proofread Believe it or not but such an obvious step in the resume writing process is often neglected by the applicants. Typographical errors, not to speak of grammatical and spelling mistakes, will seriously impair the impressions of the federal HR specialist even about a seemingly perfect resume.

This will train you to be more critical and attentive when you start building your own federal resume. We provide all the necessary basic technicalities of the resume building process. If you have a vague idea about what to write in each section, we highly recommend examining at least one USAJOBS resume builder example to see how a well-built final document should look like. Still unsure about how to make federal resume?

Your email address will not be published. Searching for Jobs 1. Do Not Leave Blank Fields. Share this Post. Daniella Henderson Daniella knows all ins and outs of the federal hiring process. She is excellent at job hunting strategies, starting from federal resume writing to the final stage of interview conduction. Leave a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

 
 

USAJOBS Resume Builder – Tips For Federal Resume Builder UsaJobs | FRG.Best Performance Premium by ELI Publishing – Issuu

 
A transition is a change. Transitioning means lots of new responsibilities and challenges. In many situations it can be hard to know what to do. Citrate with Vitamin D. > Sublingual B We stock Bariatric Fusion, you could make for a better you? Activity: Going to the gym is an import-. The only vitamin supplement recommended by Public Health England is vitamin D in the winter.” A US federal court has entered a temporary restraining order.

 

Usajobs resume builder or upload betteryou vitamin d –

 

I usajobs resume builder or upload betteryou vitamin d build the /2860.txt with all of the /29456.txt that are required on the resume builder. After we are done perfecting the resume and targeting it for the position the client wants to apply for, I walk them through, step by step, as they copy and paste the resume читать into the resume builder in USAJobs.

Often, clients try to use commercial or private industry usajobs resume builder or upload betteryou vitamin d resumes to apply for federal jobs by uploading the resume into their profile. Then they contact me wondering why they have never been referred for an interview.

I prefer to build the resume in a Word document and then copy and paste all of vitamun information into the builder. This way, Oe can still work in Word to make my federal resume attractively formatted AND be sure that it includes all of the required information. This is handy to have if you are attending a job fair and need a federal resume on hand. Have I convinced you? Move on! Just do it already! This is not the place to jobs usa gov federal jobs in sandy sansing chevrolet on details.

A functional resume, or a custom-designed resume with fancy formatting will only work against you. You must start with most recent position and move backwards.

 
 

Tips for Building a Resume with USAJobs | CareerPro Plus.COVID updates: Lockdown impact on nutrient intake

 
 

An Italian study review is highlighting that the safe intake of micro and macronutrients can be useful either for preventing infection and supporting the immune response during COVID It could also be beneficial during the post-acute phase, i. However, they note that more research is needed before approving their therapeutic use in this pathology.

The researchers used data of 1,, men born between and who had been conscripted for military service in their late teens. This was true even for men in the For those with teenage obesity, the risk of admission to an intensive care unit is more than twice as high as for those with a BMI of However, the analysis did find that treatment with vitamin D may be associated with lower rates of intubation and shorter hospital stays, but the researchers say more rigorous study is needed to validate that finding.

The other important message is that the answer to this disease is the vaccine. The researchers examined samples of intestines from people who have died of the disease. This was irrespective of whether there was evidence of virus present in the gut or not. The recommendation follows a new study that reveals SARS-CoV-2 infections can increase the risks for negative outcomes for the mother and the newborn in women who are anemic.

Puerperal infection, emergency c-section and small for gestational age were the most prevalent complications associated with anemic COVID patient mothers.

Birth weight showed a wide variation by nutritional supplementation during pregnancy. A daily combination of iron and folate was the optimal choice to normalize birth weight. The study, conducted at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Romania, identified pregnancies that matched inclusion criteria from the hospital database. A total of 95 pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID, having a significantly higher proportion of iron deficiency anemia.

The study is among the first to analyze vitamin D levels prior to infection, which facilitates a more accurate assessment than during hospitalization, when levels may be lower secondary to the viral illness. Additionally, mortality among patients with sufficient vitamin D levels was 2.

This will be beneficial to those who contract the virus. Amiel Dror, who led the study. Therefore, the researchers propose that microbiome profiling might help identify those who are most susceptible to developing the condition.

Among the bacteria species found in patients with long COVID, 28 species were reduced and 14 were enriched both at hospital admission and at 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge.

Overall, 81 bacterial species were associated with different categories of long COVID and many species were associated with more than two categories of persistent symptoms.

It also reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation and improves inflammatory status and ICU survival. The researchers note that pre-albumin seems to be useful in survival rate prediction in ICU patients. Meanwhile, people with inflammatory bowel disease IBD with incomplete vaccination, non-mRNA vaccines and combination therapy are associated with an increased risk of adverse events during breakthrough COVID infections.

The researchers note there has been very little data on the impact of COVID for vaccinated patients with inflammatory bowel disease. An evaluation of vitamin D clinical studies concludes that the vitamin may benefit those with mild or asymptomatic COVID, and those with greater 25 OH D values may have a lower risk of acquiring infection. Because those at greatest risk of COVID are also at the greatest risk of vitamin D deficiency, the author says it is reasonable to recommend vitamin D supplementation at mcg daily for the general population during the pandemic.

However, the paper warns that vitamin D doses greater than mcg daily should not be used without monitoring serum 25 OH D and calcium. Additionally, it notes that few clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have been completed and they have shown no benefit of vitamin D in hospitalized patients.

Randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm beneficial effects of vitamin D suggested by observational studies.

The researchers now say that clinical trials should be done to determine whether CBD could eventually be used as a preventative or early treatment for COVID An analysis of breast milk samples has found no evidence of recently infected mothers transmitting infectious SARS-CoV-2 through breast milk to their babies. The authors found that while a low proportion of breast milk contained COVID genetic material, this did not translate into the presence of infectious replicating viral particles or lead to evidence of clinical infection with SARS-CoV-2 in breastfeeding infants.

Although the authors caution that their sample size is small, this is currently the largest study to analyze breast milk in this context. The Natural Products Association NPA is applauding the move, having previously filed two petitions arguing the rule would slow delivery times and drive-up costs for consumers, retailers and manufacturers. The researchers conclude these orally bioavailable cannabinoids with a long history of safe human use, have the potential to prevent and treat infection by SARS-CoV This is both as an isolate or in a hemp extract.

The Denmark-based company says this is driven by market rebound. However, it expects the probiotic market will remain volatile… Read more. Notably, AB21 was associated with reduced viral load, duration of symptoms and improved rate of remission… Read more.

This is according to University of Massachusetts Amherst research, which suggests the mothers may be giving their babies passive immunity. Crucially, the antibodies were detected in infants regardless of age — from 1.

This is really important because women want to know whether their babies have these antibodies, and our study shows that antibodies are being transferred via breast milk. The UK has launched a Better Health marketing campaign aiming to help people prevent risks of developing serious illness and help reduce the risk of being hospitalized with COVID The campaign highlights six lasting benefits of losing weight, including the decreased risk of 12 cancers such as colon, liver, pancreas, kidney; lowered risk of increased blood pressure; reduced risk of heart disease; less risk of developing diabetes; less strain from chronic back and joint pain; and decreased risk of being hospitalized or becoming seriously ill with COVID Better Health is partnering with 15 weight management and physical activity partners who are providing both free and discounted offers.

Nutritional Products International NPI , a global brand management firm based in the US, is flagging that the US economy now exceeds pre-pandemic levels, with the trade deficit jumping almost 18 percent in November. While imports rose 4. US consumers have been on a buying spree, aided in part by rising wages, stimulus checks, and an economy that has shown great resilience during the past two years. There will be bumps in the road going forward.

The Federal Reserve is concerned about inflation, but also predicts the unemployment rate will drop to 3. The analysis of patients with suspected COVID found that those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and had an increased habitual intake of legumes, grains, bread and cereals showed decreased overall symptom severity.

The study does not negate the essential attention to vaccination. Claudia Lerma. The percentage of infants who received any breastfeeding also decreased during these time periods. Advertisements for unhealthy food and energy drinks on live-streaming gaming platforms like Twitch increased substantially during the pandemic.

The researchers warn that as these live-streaming platforms are often popular with children and teenagers, the ads could shape their thoughts around unhealthy foods and beverages. A study on French university students revealed that more young adults are suffering from eating disorders during the COVID pandemic. Over a period of 14 months, starting from the onset of the pandemic, one in two female students and one in three male students were affected by an eating disorder.

Bulimia was the most prevalent of all. Researchers noted depression and added stress linked to COVID such as academic disruption and fear of infection, was associated with a risk of eating disorders among students. Educators completed the Creating Healthy Eating and Activity Environments Survey and Mindful Eating Questionnaire self-audit tools, revealing that scores improved during the pandemic in The researchers suggest that this could be attributed to a change in government-mandated COVID guideline policy.

A study carried out in Chile has revealed that the COVID lockdown has had a negative impact in the lifestyle of children and adolescents. Researchers explored feeding behavior and lifestyle a year after Chile went into lockdown, using an online survey with parents and caregivers.

According to the results, Healthier feeding behavior was associated with fewer family members and parents or caregivers with at least an undergraduate degree.

Promoted as a way to save lives, protect the economy and accelerate the path out of the pandemic, employers with more than employees must now ensure that each of their workers is fully vaccinated or tested for COVID on at least a weekly basis. These employers must also provide paid time for employees to get vaccinated and ensure all unvaccinated workers wear a face mask in the workplace. However, the NPA says the regulation imposes an unrealistic timeline and significant economic burden on US businesses.

This is according to a US study of 77 mothers, which marks the first time such evidence has been discovered for IgA and IgG antibodies. Read more. This addresses the concern that a milk donor could contract a pathogen, which could be passed along undetected in their breast milk after the initial or subsequent blood screenings. Because NAAT directly tests the milk itself, Prolacta can ensure that both the donor through the blood screening and the donated milk are tested for infectious disease-causing pathogens.

The supplement contains vitamin B12, iodine, vitamin D and selenium and was donated to organizations that support people experiencing financial hardships, while living on a vegan diet.

Topics of discussion include the rising trend of childhood obesity and whether telemedicine can be effective for weight management. The online event is set to take place online between November 1 and 5. The publication highlights a clinical trial where people experiencing muscle weakness and brain fog post-COVID were given the enzyme and probiotic blends.

An investigation of adults and children found that those who were overweight or obese experienced more symptoms, especially respiratory symptoms of cough and shortness of breath, compared with other individuals.

The children of parents who experienced stress during COVID may have developed worse eating habits, according to a new study from the University of Houston College of Education. Parents do not have the time, energy or emotional capacity to engage in optimal feeding behaviors, so they resort to maladaptive feeding behaviors such as using food as a reward or pressuring their kids to eat, say the researchers.

To ensure children are optimizing their eating habits in the event of another public health emergency, the research team says policymakers or nonprofit organizations should provide support systems to help parents manage their daily stressors. While generally there was a decline in demand for some products, there was an increased demand for health-related products, particularly immunity-related products.

This may be partly due to concerns of international parcels being contaminated by the virus. In addition, the Canton of Geneva has announced that venues will be permitted to accept all foreign vaccination certificates for vaccines approved by the European Medicines Agency EMA.

These certificates are valid in paper or digital form and can be written in any language, provided a translation in English, German, Italian, French or Spanish is available on the same document.

COVID lockdowns left more than a million people with diabetes in the UK without access to the routine blood testing they need properly to manage their ailment. An analysis of online food orders and delivery in Singapore reveals that unhealthier eating habits emerged during the COVID lockdown.

These changes have persisted, even after lockdown measures were removed. A Canadian study has revealed the knock-on effect that stresses around lockdown-related food insecurity had on mental health.

They had higher odds of feeling anxious or depressed, and had triple the odds of experiencing suicidal thoughts. One in five US parents reports that their children ate fast food more often during the pandemic, according to the University of Michigan Health C.

Around one in six parents say their child eats fast food at least twice a week, reports the nationally representative poll, which is based on responses from 2, parents of children aged However, half of parents said that their kids had home-cooked meals more often since the pandemic shutdowns began in March Gary Freed, poll co-director and Mott pediatrician. The researchers conclude that severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of serious and fatal outcomes of COVID infection.

Their data revealed that patients with severe coronavirus infection have the lowest serum 25 OH D levels. Additionally, obesity independently worsens disease prognosis by at least six times, requiring an integrated approach in managing such patients.

Nellson has shared insight into current pandemic-related supply chain challenges, and ways in which it is helping brands navigate and overcome them. USDA will build upon its existing infrastructure to implement a risk-based, comprehensive, integrated disease monitoring and surveillance system domestically, and enhance collaborations with national, regional, and global partners to build additional capacity for zoonotic disease surveillance and prevention using a One Health approach.

This holistic approach will benefit all of animal agriculture and the wildlife community by expanding our ability to collect surveillance data and increase our diagnostic and epidemiologic capacity, which will better enable us to rapidly detect and respond to new disease threats and provide early warning intelligence to our public health partners.

As the plant-based market moves further into the mainstream, consumers are looking for the most nutritious plant-based NPD. The COVID pandemic has helped create a shift amongst consumers toward a new holistic view on sustainability. Read more Read more…. This is according to a survey of 1, customers that consistently measured their metabolism with Lumen and who worked from home during the pandemic from August of and onward.

The results are surprising as the pandemic is a time when most US consumers reported gaining weight and experienced a general decline in their health. CheongKwanJang accounted for approximately 70 percent of the entire red ginseng market in the first half of August The new coronavirus study review revealed the number of reports indicating the potential role of vitamin D deficiency in COVID cases are increasing.

The review highlights that patients suffering from COVID were more likely to be overweight, obese or older in age. A survey of 10, Japanese consumers before and after lockdown restrictions were imposed and lifted has revealed that most lifestyle changes were reversed when stay-at-home restrictions ended.

These include changes in physical activity, snacking and food intake. However, increased alcohol and body weight changes both gains and losses persisted. The researchers say that this points to the need for close monitoring for further health outcomes and age-appropriate measures to encourage favorable health behaviors.

The Integrative Healthcare Symposium has been canceled for this year. The US event had been scheduled to take place September at the New York Hilton Midtown, but the hotel has temporarily suspended operations due to the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, it could not guarantee it would be open in time to host the Symposium. However, the edition will proceed in New York as scheduled February This is according to a study , which details how SFAs reconfigured their usual operations with nearly no preparation time while simultaneously trying to keep staff from contracting COVID They also had to accommodate stakeholders with sometimes competing priorities and remain financially solvent.

The study authors emphasize the need for disaster preparedness plans that help SFAs better navigate the switch to financially viable community distribution methods in case of future crises.

A history of malnutrition in COVID patients may increase the risk of death and the need for mechanical ventilation, according to a US study published in Scientific Reports. The authors suggest that public health interventions for those at the highest risk of malnutrition may help mitigate the higher likelihood of severe COVID in this group. An extract made from natto — a fermented soybean dish consumed in Japan — may inhibit the ability of the virus that causes COVID to infect cells, according to a new study based on cell cultures.

COVID has had a major impact on consumer habits around supplementation, stress levels, sleep quality and overall well-being, according to two US surveys Without immediate action, an additional , malnutrition-related deaths in young children are estimated by An additional million people cannot afford a healthy diet due to the pandemic. The pandemic has rolled back decades of progress in the fight against malnutrition, with community health systems in developing countries now facing significant challenges in providing care and treatment to those in need.

This is according to the results of two human studies, which suggest that this polyphenol, whose properties in supporting respiratory health are scientifically proven, could be a potential adjuvant to manage early stage conditions of COVID Moreover, it statistically shortens the timing of molecular test conversion from positive to negative.

In addition, the market researcher notes that younger generations are expressing greater concern for protection against future pandemics and the threat posed to physical and mental well-being One out of every ten hospitalized patients with diabetes and COVID dies within seven days of admission. Patients in the group who received the C3 Complex with BioPerine adjuvant treatment showed quicker symptomatic recovery and better ability to maintain oxygen saturation.

The researchers conclude that the curcuminoid-piperine combination could help reduce morbidity and mortality and ease the logistical and supply-related burdens on the healthcare system. Muhammed Majeed, founder and chairman of Sami-Sabinsa group. Researchers are warning about the effect of extended pandemic lockdowns on eating behaviors, as intake of high-energy density foods HED has risen for many people. Over half of the UK respondents 53 percent in the Appetite -published study reported increased snack intake, 26 percent reported decreased snack intake and 20 percent reported no changes to the amount of snacks they ate during the lockdown.

A Pharmavite study has revealed that US pharmacists have compromised their health and well-being by working longer hours to meet the increased demand for their services over the course of the pandemic. However, eight in ten report that daily vitamin supplementation was an important part of their own routine, and three-quarters said there has been a surge in patients requesting information about vitamins and supplements since the beginning of the pandemic.

COVID survivors with moderate or severe obesity may have a greater risk of experiencing long-term consequences of the disease, compared to patients who are not obese. Multiple studies have previously identified obesity as a risk factor for developing a severe form of COVID that may require hospital admission, intensive care and ventilator support in the early phase of the disease. Obesity weakens the immune system and creates a chronic inflammatory state.

Nearly two-thirds of UK consumers have made dietary changes in the last year to improve their health, according to a new survey commissioned by The British Nutrition Foundation BNF. This is according to a survey commissioned by prebiotic fiber brand Benefiber , which also reveals that 52 percent of US consumers have experienced an increase in digestive problems in the past year They screened and sorted a library of natural compounds already known to be active against other coronaviruses using an artificial intelligence-aided computer program.

The findings suggest that one of the compounds in green tea could combat the coronavirus behind COVID The remedy contains nine herbal ingredients traditionally used in Eastern medicine to manage lung diseases.

Their results suggest that RDS might broadly inhibit respiratory viruses, such as influenza. Among people who did develop the disease, there was no difference between vitamin D levels and likelihood of being hospitalized or falling severely ill. The researchers note that physiologically, milk contains biocomponents that are highly protective against infections. The researchers aim to make a supplement that would boost the immune system through a dairy preparation with a high level of antibodies, helping the system control infection through different immune pathways.

A Cleveland Clinic , US, study has revealed that survivors of COVID who have moderate or severe obesity may have a greater risk of experiencing long-term consequences of the disease than patients who do not have obesity. The figures show that the risk of a less nutritious diet is 21 percent greater for adolescents from more socioeconomically disadvantaged positions.

The researchers advise public administrations to foster actions and policies that help prevent future lockdown situations.

There is further a need to analyze whether these changes, which arose over a short period of time, will remain in place in the long term. The researchers have raised the possibility that staying at home meant IBS patients were not exposed to outside stress and were better able to avoid food triggers. The investigation included IBS patients in Argentina, which had one of the longest lockdowns in the world. May 24 Snacking and eating occasions are becoming more prevalent.

According to Glanbia Nutritionals , several factors contribute to the increase in snacking, including cultural shifts, more regular snacking amid the COVID pandemic and the upending of usual food rituals It shares research, expert video interviews, news and education in a user-friendly format, with a focus on US consumers aged 55 and above.

Almost 50 percent of parents and guardians on the island of Ireland say that children are eating more treats since the start of the pandemic, according to Safefood. Adults are also finding it difficult to keep the amount of treats their children eat to a minimum. Safefood is promoting its START campaign, which focuses on the critical moment when a child asks for a treat and supports parents in taking a stand in saying no in order to re-start their kids on the way to healthier habits.

We know that physical lockdowns, home-schooling and a lack of social contact have all contributed to this situation. The omnichannel retailer is also offering up to four hours of pay for hourly employees who get vaccinated. This was mainly due to higher prices and volume growth.

The Brazilian clinical trial gave patients , IU of vitamin D3 or a placebo on admission to the hospital. Now published in JAMA , the study was inspired by previous trials that showed that in certain situations, vitamin D and its metabolites can have anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects, as well as modulating the immune response.

The US Department of Agriculture USDA is increasing food assistance to low-income seniors — a population that has been especially hard-hit by the pandemic. The campaign has delivered 75 million Unilever hygiene products — more than three times the original target — to 60 countries.

Other initiatives include instructing on deep cleaning of public buildings, installing over , handwashing stations globally and running information campaigns across TV, radio and social media in 37 countries.

The researchers speculate that if the gut-imprinted immune cells are diluted in comparison to immune cells triggered by other parts of the body, there could be implications for the oral-based COVID vaccines currently under development. Decreases in C-reactive proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been noted A University of Minnesota Medical School study has identified a correlation between the pandemic and six unhealthy behaviors. The researchers say the most concerning finding indicates a slight increase or the re-emergence of eating disorders , which kill roughly 10, people every year.

The six behaviors are:. The prospective cohort study included 84 women in Israel, who provided breast milk samples. Mean levels of anti-SARS-CoVspecific IgA antibodies in the breast milk increased rapidly and were significantly elevated at two weeks after the first vaccine, when Consumers today are more aware of the role nutrition can play in promoting health and wellness. Speaking to NutritionInsight , De Roover shares her insights on the pandemic and how it is changing the way consumers look at personal health Apportal contains phytoextracts and amino acids, blended with nutrients that target immunity vitamin C and D and the muscular system magnesium Israeli researchers based at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have created a new company to develop and commercialize drug candidates based on molecules isolated from probiotic kefir yogurt.

This follows an investigation finding that they may help combat pathogenic bacteria and treat various inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease and cytokine storms related to COVID The Consumer Goods Forum CGF and the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition , the founding partners of the Workforce Nutrition Alliance , have developed new online assessment and planning tools for employers to use in developing or enhancing their workforce nutrition program.

The tools are built on a four-pillar framework that supports: healthy food at work, nutrition education, nutrition health checks and breastfeeding support. Meanwhile, new research highlights that the pandemic could reverse gains made in achieving Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 2, toward no poverty and zero hunger, respectively. This is according to a study analyzing bean production and food security across 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Border controls and high transport costs have led to drops in production of the key food security crop. A Brazilian study has suggested that a high-fiber diet may play a role in controlling the inflammation associated with COVID Compounds produced by gut microbiota during the fermentation of insoluble fiber from dietary plant matter do not affect the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to enter and replicate in cells lining the intestines.

While in vitro treatment of cells with these molecules did not significantly influence local tissue infection, it reduced the expression of a gene that plays a key role in viral cell entry and a cytokine receptor that favors inflammation.

It notes how right after the COVID outbreak, a nutritional narrative shift appeared in how people see specific food products, which occurred among many consumers staying home.

Instead of relying on known and proven facts about nutrition, many people embraced ancient health tips and home remedies, HMT says.

Additionally, consumers are choosing products that are familiar to them or with which they have an emotional connection. The placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial sheds light on the gut-lung axis and has now been submitted for peer review COVID has made immunity benefits a huge factor in the choices people make about the food they eat, according to Dr.

Miguel Freitas, vice president of scientific affairs at Danone North America. Freitas sits down with NutritionInsight to discuss how probiotics can help with immunity, which of them are truly beneficial for health and spotlights a study Danone is funding on the COVID and probiotics link SupplySide East has been postponed to August 24 to 25, The US trade show had originally been scheduled for June After reviewing government and facility restrictions, anticipated gathering guidelines in New Jersey and listening to industry feedback, the team is assured that the rescheduled August dates will be the right time for the nutrition community to convene.

Using artificial 3D human models of oral, airway and intestinal tissues, the researchers identified 13 high-CBD C. Some C. The USDA is extending several waivers that allow all children to continue to receive nutritious meals this summer when schools are out of session. This allows for safe meal distribution sites that serve all children for free, regardless of income. The USDA flags that up to 12 million US children are living in households where they may not always have enough to eat.

These summer meals will provide relief to many children in families who have been hard-hit by the COVID pandemic and are fighting daily to put food on the table. Administrating zinc supplements to deficient COVID patients could help reduce mortality and recovery time, as well as prevent risk groups, like the elderly, from suffering the worst effects of the disease.

This group had more severe symptoms and higher levels of inflammation. On average, their hospital stay was three times longer than patients with higher zinc levels, and they were more likely to die. Risk of death from COVID is ten times higher in countries where over half the population is classified as overweight. Kerry expects the functional beverage market to gain traction and see a surge of NPD targeting consumers who are approaching health holistically due to the COVID threat. This is based on new Kerry research, which found that 65 percent of functional beverage consumers are more worried about their health since the start of the pandemic Consumers increasingly turn to sleep and relaxations supplements to tackle COVID stress and this market is pegged for further growth in , according to PharmaLinea experts Kappa Bioscience is funding the first-ever human clinical trial to explore the potential benefits of vitamin K2 supplementation in COVID patients.

The trial, which is in partnership with Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Netherlands, has begun enrolling participants. The primary objective is to evaluate whether vitamin K status affects the degradation of elastic fibers in the lungs.

Results are expected in the fall. We are committed to supporting ongoing projects in this important research area. A new paper points to growing evidence that vitamin B6 exerts a protective effect against chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes by suppressing inflammation, inflammasomes, oxidative stress and carbonyl stress. The researchers hope that these findings will help lower the odds of patients becoming seriously ill with COVID This research finds that patients diagnosed with COVID and low sodium are twice as likely to need intubation or other means of advanced breathing support as those with normal sodium.

Additionally, patients who develop high sodium levels during the hospital stay were three times more likely to die than those who have normal sodium levels throughout hospitalization.

However, they acknowledge that firm conclusions await the results of various trials While the preventative benefits of supplementing may hold promise, a new Brazilian study has cast doubt on the abilities of vitamin D3 to reduce the hospital stay of patients with COVID NutritionInsight speaks with experts from both sides of the debate The watchdog emphasizes that truth in advertising is important to protect consumers and help level the playing field for fair competition in the marketplace.

This core concept becomes especially important when advertising health-related products, including over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements.

Zinc supplements for men and women attempting to conceive during the COVID pandemic may prevent mitochondrial damage in young egg and sperm cells, as well as enhance immunity against the virus. This is according to researchers from Wayne State University School of Medicine , US, who are now saying that zinc supplementation of up to a maximum of 50 mg per day for all adults could be beneficial in enhancing immunity and fighting the viral disease process of COVID Louis , US, is suggesting that problems in the upper gastrointestinal GI tract may be vulnerable to infection after swallowing the virus.

In contrast, cholesterol may increase infectivity, which could explain why having high cholesterol is considered a risk factor for serious disease New types of supplements are providing another way to ensure that people are consuming the nutrients they need to maintain their health. The COVID pandemic has compounded public concerns over issues such as immunity and given the nutrition industry newfound scope and responsibility to meet changing demands.

NutritionInsight talks with experts from Fonterra, Lonza and ADM about the developing trends arising from fresh scientific research and ever-evolving consumer needs Kyle Esplin, chair of the Scottish Hemp Association , speaks to NutritionInsight about how industry can bounce back and the regulatory considerations surrounding whole plant hemp extracts and novel foods The lack of data has led to some concerns about whether breastfeeding women should get vaccinated.

A new report by four specialized UN agencies outlines how nutritious food affordability is crucial to ensure food security for all, particularly for mothers and children January The researchers say that if an association is confirmed with a larger sample size, then this would lay the groundwork for testing the effects of increased oily fish intake or an inexpensive, safe and widely available dietary supplement in the form of DHA and EPA capsules.

This could optimize outcomes during this public health crisis, the researchers note. The COVID pandemic has led to significant worsening of already poor dietary habits, low activity levels, sedentary behavior and high alcohol consumption among university students. This is according to a Canadian investigation from the University of Saskatchewan , which followed vulnerable graduate and undergraduate students for four months.

The study, now published in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, found that the students consumed less food every day during the pandemic compared to before. For instance, they ate 20 percent less meat, 44 percent less dairy and 45 percent fewer vegetables.

After nearly a year of lockdown restrictions and social distancing requirements across the globe, many consumers are resorting to home workouts to keep fit, while others are putting on the pandemic pounds as a result of eating for comfort.

Microbiome transplants have been proposed as a potential treatment for individuals suffering long-term symptoms of COVID This is in light of the discovery that the gut microbiome may influence the severity and longevity of COVID symptoms A study has explored real-time personal and employee safety experiences and perspectives of school nutrition professionals ranging from frontline staff to state leadership across the US. Carried out during the early weeks of the pandemic, it found that 94 percent of respondents had significant concern for risk of transmission or risk of exposure to COVID while they were at work as they interacted with people in the community and their coworkers.

Another theme that emerged was a concern with the processes, including administrative interactions, logistics, and protocols for serving emergency meals. Personal concerns were also rampant, with respondents describing feelings of exhaustion, fear and stress. Nearly half the population feel more motivated than they did last year to make changes to their life in January. Overall, 40 percent of adults aged 40 to 60 plan to eat more healthily, while 39 percent and 41 percent respectively will lose weight and exercise more.

Alison Tedstone, chief nutritionist at PHE. Its petition is currently signed by over doctors and nutritionists, calling for the UK government and its public health and nutrition agencies to recommend to all citizens to supplement with vitamin C during the pandemic. December A survey commissioned by biotechnology company Gelesis found that 71 million US consumers have gained weight throughout the pandemic.

However, as a new year approaches, the survey also found that, months into the pandemic, US consumers are more determined than ever to lose weight and maintain healthy habits. An editorial published in Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation argues that telemedicine should be used to diagnose and treat dysphagia.

This will protect clinicians throughout the pandemic, as their work tends to put them in contact with body areas frequented by SARS-CoV Adaptogens such as ginseng, rhodiola, Bacopa monnieri or holy basil can be positioned to help consumers dynamically cope with whatever difficult situation at hand.

The retail giant is entering into agreements with states to be able to support vaccinations where needed. Notably, 90 percent of the US population lives within 10 miles of a Walmart, meaning the company could have a major role in the vaccination program.

This layered approach to the definition of essential oral healthcare allows for categorization and prioritization with available resources and needs in mind, the authors note. Pfizer has emphasized that the vaccine was generally well-tolerated in the phase 3 clinical trial, with no serious safety concerns reported by the independent Data Monitoring Committee.

NPA stresses that state public health officials should follow guidance issued by the Department of Homeland Security in August regarding essential businesses. An analysis in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior has revealed that most US jurisdictions mentioned school meal provisions in school closure announcements; provided easily interpretable information or maps about meal sites; and included detailed information about school meal provisions in their COVID landing webpages.

According to research from the Trussell Trust , 73 percent of UK food bank users receiving government-provided Universal Credit are repaying advance payments compared to 51 percent pre-pandemic. The Trussell Trust has called upon the UK government to immediately suspend all benefit debt deductions during the upcoming winter months and bring forward planned easements to deductions until at least the spring. The calls follow the research findings that 47 percent of households who use food banks were in debt to the UK Department of Work and Pensions during the summer compared to 37 percent in February.

COVID has created an opportunity for new players to break into the sports nutrition market as consumers with more time on their hands turn toward exercise. These consumers value the importance of exercise, have relatively high disposable income and look for science-backed solutions to support health and performance. Caution with these findings is warranted given the study is observational and cannot determine a causal relationship. December 1. The COVID pandemic has reinforced immunity in the infant nutrition sector, emphasizing the role of vitamins, minerals and especially oligosaccharides, a group of ingredients closely linked to immunity.

NutritionInsight spoke with experts from Lallemand Health Solutions , FrieslandCampina Ingredients , NZMP and Vaneeghen on how infant nutrition trends reflect trends trailblazed in the adult market and overlap with immune health concerns The biologists behind a new study flag that if proteases are inhibited, cells cannot perform many important functions — like replication.

Over 2. NutritionInsight spoke with industry experts about the trendiest immunity ingredients and their health benefits Traditional immunity solutions are proving popular with consumers as they turn toward comforting and time-tested offerings in an era of uncertainty. Pharmactive is addressing these demands with its Mediterranean-inspired Olivactive, Isenolic and IsenolicComplex products Fonterra has launched a new range of milk phospholipids to manage the effects of stress.

Obese patients with COVID had a significantly associated with a lower risk of hospital and intensive care unit admission if they had a history of bariatric surgery.

In contrast to 42 percent of the control group patients who required hospitalization after contracting COVID, only 18 percent of the patients in the weight-loss surgery group needed hospitalization. November 24 A Lycored survey has found that two in three consumers are concerned they are not getting enough vitamin D as a result of spending more time indoors during the pandemic.

This concern was particularly high among Millennials, with three quarters of 25 to year-olds worried about vitamin D deficiency. Lycored is spotlighting the role of vitamin D supplementation during the COVID outbreak, as it helps regulate levels of calcium and phosphate, which are needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy.

Patients with abnormally high glucose levels were more than twice as likely to die from COVID than those with normal readings. They also had an increased need for a ventilator and intensive care admission ICU. This is according to research published in the peer-reviewed open access journal Annals of Medicine. The researchers are now calling for compulsory hyperglycemia screening and early treatment for anyone hospitalized with COVID who is non-diabetic.

The recommendations will be based on a systematic review of the available evidence and are due to be published by the end of the year. An investigation into vertical COVID transmission from mothers to fetuses has proposed that lactoferrin may reduce viral docking and entry into host cells and limit the early phase of COVID infection.

The researchers argue that an in-depth understanding of lactoferrin and other soluble mammalian milk-derived innate antiviral factors may provide insights to reduce co-morbidities and vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

This could also lead to the development of effective nutraceutical supplements. People with allergic diseases , including food allergy, eczema and asthma are no more likely to have severe cases of COVID than those without these allergies. In terms of ICU admission, 43 percent of patients with allergic disease were admitted versus 34 percent without. Factors including age, race and gender can make vitamin C transports less efficient, thus affecting its effectiveness as a potential therapy against maladies, including COVID Researchers from the Medical College of Georgia Center for Healthy Aging stress that these factors should be considered in the design and execution of clinical trials and when trial results are analyzed.

There are at least 30 clinical trials underway in which vitamin C, alone or in combination with other treatments, is being evaluated against COVID A French study has found that regular bolus vitamin D supplementation was associated with less severe COVID and better survival in frail elderly patients.

The researchers conclude that vitamin D3 supplementation may represent an effective, accessible and well-tolerated adjuvant treatment for COVID, for which there are currently no validated treatments.

November 5. Overweight and highly-educated people are two groups who were more likely to increase their consumption of unhealthy food during the first COVID lockdown in spring. Nutrition sales increased by 4 percent and organic sales were up 5 percent Experts are once again debating the best ways to avoid vitamin D deficiency following the discovery that over 80 percent of COVID patients in a Spanish hospital were suffering from it COVID has prompted parents to spend more money on immunity products for their children.

At the other end of the age spectrum, older people are particularly at risk, which has created new salience for the healthy aging market. Other impacted areas include gut health and harnessing online channels like never before. According to the researchers, the results demonstrated chemical and biochemical evidence for exploring molecular mechanisms of therapeutic effects of LHQW capsules for the treatment of COVID patients. This is based on the components exposed to humans.

Henry Lamotte Oils says that the world has not yet reached the climax of the pandemic. It flags that interruptions of the global supply chains may occur, and it will not be able to compensate for all potential interruptions in the short-term.

While healthy eating increased due to eating at home more, snacking increased. People also got less exercise and sleep, and anxiety levels doubled. One-third of people with obesity gained weight during the lockdown, compared to This is by enabling an increase in levels of a natural peptide called apelin, which is known to reduce inflammation and whose levels are dramatically reduced in the face of this storm.

Researchers from the Dental College of Georgia and Medical College of Georgia have shown that apelin levels are significantly reduced by the viral infection and that CBD quickly helps normalize those levels along with lung function. Our Elderberry Immune Support keeps you protected with vitamin C, zinc, elderberries, garlic and echinacea; a powerful immune-boosting combo. According to the company, the immunity-boosting PhytoRelief-CC supplements will help these municipal workers protect their own depleted immune systems during this worldwide health crisis.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of nine clinical studies has found that the probability that an obese person will develop severe COVID is high regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, and the presence of co-morbidities such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart or lung disease.

The authors conclude that obesity is itself a factor that favors rapid progression to critical illness requiring intensive care and significantly increases the risk of death. BioGaia therefore estimates that sales and earnings will be negatively affected both in quarter three and quarter four COVID has shone a light on the impact of long-term inequalities in health.

The UN World Food Programme WFP has won the Nobel Peace Prize for its efforts to combat hunger, its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and acting as a driving force to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict. The USDA is extending flexibilities to allow free meals to continue to be available to all children throughout the entire school year.

These include waiving meal pattern requirements as necessary and allowing meals to be served outside of the typically required group settings and meal times.

COVID is bolstering demand for nutraceuticals to maintain wellness and ward off mood health difficulties. However, the sector continues to face major challenges in terms of standing out in a saturated market and communicating scientific backing, as told to NutritionInsight by Lonza , Giellepi and Nexira The ongoing pandemic is reshaping supplementation use for specific health issues. With old and new scientific evidence coming to light, Kaneka Pharma is highlighting how its patented Ubiquinol, a direct active form of coenzyme Q10, is moving from sports nutrition and heart health to the immunity sector The nutrition industry is bracing for the effects of a second COVID wave as many countries are witnessing a resurgence in cases.

NutritionInsight speaks with key companies about how consumer demands have evolved since the virus first reared its head, and what lessons can be learned from the earlier stages of the outbreak A quarter of nutrition professionals have lost work during the pandemic. This could have an impact on fighting obesity, which has been repeatedly connected to more severe outcomes in patients with COVID The research undertaken by UK-based Nutrition Talent , a specialist nutrition recruitment agency and consultancy, also reveals that of people whose role has continued, 48 percent have seen an increased workload The percentage of US consumers taking dietary supplements has slightly decreased from 77 percent last year to 73 percent this year.

Nasal calcium-rich salts called FEND may be an effective way of eliminating airborne particles from airways. Sensory Cloud , the creator of FEND, studied the effectiveness of nasal administration of physiological salts at reducing airborne particles from exhaled breath, including the sub-micron aerosolized particles that are ineffectively filtered by cloth face masks.

Information technology plays a primary role in industry and business today. The incredible changes and developments in the management and processing of information have brought about advances in all areas, from design and production to distribution and sales. IT has allowed companies to build up a competitive advantage, increase their efficiency and speed, cut costs and develop strategic planning.

Computer-aided technologies is a term used to indicate the use of computer technology to assist with the ideation, design, analysis and manufacturing of products. CAD, short for computer-aided design, creates 2D drawings and 3D models and is used, for example, by designers, architects and engineers.

The software allows the user to rotate the model in any direction and to edit and instantly make changes to the design. It is widely employed in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as architectural design.

CAM stands for computer-aided manufacturing and refers to computer applications which control the machine tools used to produce high-quality parts. The two components of a RFID system are tags and readers. Tags are the very tiny, data-carrying transponders which are attached to an item. These tags can be self-adhesive, heat and water resistant, embedded on credit cards, wrist bands or key rings.

Readers are the devices used for the collection of the data and can be connected to a computer or POS terminal, for example. In addition, multiple tags can be read at the same time, unlike barcodes which have to be read one at a time. The applications for this technology are multiple and include ticket systems for public transport, motorway toll payment systems, manufacturing process checks, distribution chain, stock and inventory control and security and safety inspections.

The Quick Response code, usually shortened to QR code, is a two-dimensional barcode which can be read faster than a traditional barcode and also has a much greater storage capacity.

It was originally invented for use in the automobile industry to keep track of vehicles during production. Its uses in business and industry include traceability, picking, inventory management, document management and admission control and it can be found in all areas from a manufacturing plant, to a retail outlet, warehouse or pharmacy. Recently, its use has become extremely common in consumer advertising and marketing.

These black and white squares of code are placed everywhere: on adverts and bus shelters, in magazines and stores. Read the texts and answer these questions. Industry 4. This will result in increased productivity and efficiency and a reduction in waste. The potential of Industry 4.

A simple example to illustrate the process, but one which also shows its application in an environment other than a factory, is that of an office printer. The printer monitors its paper and ink situation, connects to an inventory system to know how much spare ink and paper is available in the office and orders new supplies when needed, all without any human involvement. Well, except for adding new paper and changing the toner of course.

He predicts that the fourth industrial revolution will completely change our economy, communities and lives. However, at the same time, he warns that these rapidly developing technologies pose incredible risks if they are not managed and regulated correctly. In his book Shaping the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Professor Schwab, together with leading experts from the fields of technology, economics and sociology, presents a practical guide on how we can make sure that these exciting technologies transform our society in a way that is safe, ethical and sustainable.

Which is something we should all bear in mind as our world and lives are rapidly transformed in front of us. What sectors are currently being revolutionised by Industry 4. What will be missing from many processes in smart factories?

What are the benefits of a smart factory? What warning does Professor Schwab give in his first book? How would he like to see Industry 4. In small groups, carry out some research on Industry 4. Do you recognise the Fairtrade mark? Are Fairtrade products available in your area?

Do you or your family buy them? This means that a reduction in carbon emissions and pollution, efficient use of energy and resources and the prevention of loss of biodiversity must accompany economic growth. Fair trade Not all trade is fair. The people at the beginning of the food production chain — the farm workers in developing countries — do not usually get a fair share of the profits or other benefits of trade.

The international fair trade movement is seeking to balance out this inequality by ensuring that workers and producers in developing countries get a fair deal.

Over the last few years, and traders have to meet. Thanks to this consumer countries, with 1. Read the text and complete these sentences. Go to www. Sustainable trade A new kind of trade system is emerging in the business world. Sustainable trade is a type of trade that harms neither the social nor the ecological environment. It ensures that trade contributes positively to economic, social and environmental development.

It can be applied to agricultural products as well as manufactured goods like handicrafts and textiles. In developed countries, the markets for certified products have grown significantly in recent years.

As a result, a growing number of socially-driven companies have become a medium to support sustainable agriculture and eco-friendly production activities in underdeveloped parts of the world. Natural products are purchased directly from rural cooperatives growing organic coffee, cocoa, tea, fruit and spices. Buyers from these socially-aware companies are able to increase the incomes of small producers and enhance local productivity and competitiveness by offering steady markets, price protection, financial and technical assistance.

Similarly, it is possible to purchase products which have been manufactured according to processes that cause minimal negative environmental impact, with respect for natural resources, workers and communities. BioTrade, closely tied to sustainable trade, is the collection, production, transformation and selling of goods e. Sustainable trade is a type of trade that It includes The market for certified products The organic agricultural produce market means that.

Complete the notes below. Over the last twenty years, a lot of emphasis has been placed on green economy both by international organisations and individual companies. Use examples and your personal experience to support what you say. Business communication only includes letters, faxes and emails. All companies 2 today use the services of a public relations company. Virtual 3 communication has increased over recent years. Business communication Methods of communication Business communication is similar to standard communication and also includes the promotion of products, services or organisations.

It is also used to transmit information within the business and manage legal issues. Moreover, it is the means of communicating along the supply chain. Business communication can be broken down into two areas:. EXTERNAL outside the company : Examples include branding, marketing, advertising, customer, media and government relations and business to business negotiations.

Internal communication is also important to motivate employees, which improves productivity. The communication director is responsible for internal communications. Business communication, like all communication, is conducted in a variety of ways.

Presentation programs have facilitated the audio-visual aspect of this important way of communicating new strategies and introducing new products. It is an efficient way for companies with operations and personnel all over the globe, like multinational corporations, to convene with huge savings in costs and time.

In small groups, discuss which methods of communication would be most suitable in these situations. When deciding which method of written communication to use, it is not only important to evaluate which is the most suitable for your purpose but it is also essential to decide whether you need to use a formal or informal tone.

Emails and memos are usually informal, while business letters, faxes and e-faxes are normally more formal. Emails Email electronic mail is a system of sending and receiving text messages digitally over a computer network, between personal computers, smartphones and similar devices.

It is fast, convenient and eco-friendly, as long as you do not print out masses of emails unnecessarily. Emails are so direct and instant they have changed the way businesses communicate and have led to a decrease in the formality of a lot of business correspondence.

The format of an email is as follows: FROM: This is the name and email address of the sender of the email. We are in the Yoga and Pilates clothing and equipment business and would like to widen our range of products. We are looking for a supplier of yoga and Pilates mats, bands and balls and would appreciate it if you could send us your latest catalogue, as well as a detailed price list and sales conditions.

We have more than 35 shops in the UK and Europe. We expect to place substantial orders if the quality and prices of your products are satisfactory. We look forward to your reply. Who is the sender? Who is the recipient? Who is receiving a copy of the email? Who is receiving a blind copy? Thank you for your email. Our company was established in and we specialise in top quality wellness gear.

Maurice Mitchell. Dear Ms Stewart, Best regards, I look forward to hearing from you. Memos can be on paper or electronic. They are used to tell employees about changes in procedures, rules or policy, or else for a specific purpose like a request to attend a meeting. She writes him a memo to arrange a meeting. The text should be clear and to the point. Avoid long complex sentences with a lot of clauses. Short sentences make your message less confusing. Use contractions and abbreviations.

Imperatives can often be used. Reading comprehension Read the text and the memo and answer these questions. B You want to plan a trip to China to visit a new supplier. Forms You will probably have to fill in a form if you apply for a job or a passport, join a club, subscribe to a newsletter, request information from a company or shop online. Business and commercial documents are often forms, such as order, booking and application forms, income tax return and VAT forms, bank transfer forms and legal forms.

A form, whether it is printed or online, is made up of fields which need to be filled in with specific information. It is important to follow the instructions carefully. For example, many printed forms require you to write in block capitals or to use only black ink.

Online forms, on the other hand, often have required fields — normally marked with an asterisk — which must be filled in otherwise the form is not valid and cannot be submitted. Find the synonyms of these expressions on the form below. Notes Informal notes can be taken during meetings, presentations and telephone calls for later personal use, to serve as a reminder of things that need to be done, to be passed on to colleagues or to be written up more completely, for example as minutes or a report.

Notes are normally written in a condensed and abbreviated form. Listen and complete her note to her colleague. These useful sticky pieces of paper can be found stuck to telephones, monitors, documents and letters, serving as a reminder of something important.

They were invented by Art Fry, an employee at 3M, using an adhesive which had been invented in the same company many years earlier. Business letters A business letter is a formal means of communication between two people. Its purpose is to inform or convince the reader about something. It can either go top down from a superior to a subordinate: i. Business letters differ from personal letters because they follow strict rules of composition. When you write a business letter, make sure it is clear, correct, courteous, convincing and complete.

Before writing a business letter you always need to know exactly what type of letter you are writing, why you are writing and what you want to achieve. Consider what the letter is for: acknowledgement, adjustment, complaint, enquiry, sales, order. You also need to think about whether it is in response to another letter.

This will help organise what you intend to say. Ideally your letter should not be too long, in order to respect the limited amount of time the recipient might have available. Reading comprehension Read the text and answer these questions. In pairs, talk about the characteristics of these different forms of business communication and complete this table.

Your enquiry of 18th October We were pleased to receive your enquiry about the tiles we manufacture, and are sending you a price list and catalogue showing our full range of products for floor and wall tiles. We are also enclosing a few samples of our best-selling collections for bathrooms and kitchens, including our latest range of hand-painted tiles.

On receiving an order, we can supply most of the tiles in our catalogue within ten days. We know you and your clients will be absolutely delighted with the quality of our products.

Ms is now the most common title for women, although Mrs can be used for a married woman and Miss for an unmarried woman. It also refers to any previous correspondence or dealings. Each point or theme should be in a new paragraph. We have found your company on the Internet.

We are one of the leading sunglasses manufacturers in China and we would like to propose our services to your company. Our company is export-oriented and we have enjoyed an excellent reputation for over 17 years. We also have all the necessary certifications to meet EU requirements. Please browse our website www. If you find anything of interest, please advise us of the item numbers and quantities and we will quote you our best prices.

We are also pleased to offer a personalised service, where we manufacture samples according to your specifications and drawings and submit them for your approval. Hoping to start a long-term business cooperation with you, we look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully, Ken Liu. The most common way to separate paragraphs is to leave a line between them. Read the text and look at the sentences below. Do they come from the opening paragraph, the middle paragraph or the closing paragraph?

Faxes and electronic faxes Most faxes today are sent directly using a computer, smartphone or tablet and Internet. There is no additional cost — just the existing internet connection fee — and it is environmentally friendly as there is no need to print out any documents. Traditional faxes, sent using a telephone line and a fax machine, can still be useful for those without a computer or internet connection.

However, as the cost of sending a fax depends on the time the phone line is connected, it can be an expensive option to send long, multiple faxes to distant locations. Reading comprehension Read the text and the fax and answer these questions. Social media and apps Practically everyone has a personal smartphone nowadays, and many business people are also issued a company phone, so it is unsurprising that they are frequently used for work purposes like making and receiving phone calls and checking emails at any moment.

Messaging is also quick and easy with apps like WhatsApp. However, there are also apps that are specifically aimed at the business market, such as Slack, Basecamp and Facebook at Work. The market for this kind of enterprise social software is growing rapidly and the services offered are constantly updated.

The idea of allowing employees to chat to each other more easily seems almost counterproductive to increasing productivity, but these systems can help employees focus on what is relevant to them and increase teamwork and collaboration. They also cut down on the number of emails that are sent and copied unnecessarily around a company. Security, of course, is of prime concern for both users and the enterprise social software companies since no company would want their internal communications spread across the Internet for all to access.

How can smartphones be used at work? What is enterprise social software and what are the advantages for a business? What drawbacks could there be to these systems? What type of company do you think they could be most beneficial to? Oral communication Oral communication whether face-to-face, on the phone or via web conference is a vital part of business today. Therefore good oral communication skills — in both your mother tongue and in English — are essential to help you make a good impression, express your ideas clearly and get ahead in the business world.

Telephone calls Making and receiving telephone calls in a foreign language is one of the hardest things to do in the workplace. Because we are unable to see the person we are speaking to, we cannot use the usual non-verbal clues. Eye contact, facial expressions and body language are all unvoiced ways of communicating and help us understand our interlocutor. Fortunately, phone calls follow certain standard phrases. Learning to pronounce them well will help you go a long way in mastering telephone skills and reduce the anxiety that is so common at first attempts.

This is Sam. Telephonist Peter Greene. Mr Sam Crawford from Greystone Ltd. Mr Dawson. We met at the trade fair in London last June. We are interested in your capsule coffee machines. What day would suit you? Good morning, this is Sam Crawford from Greystone Ltd. What is the purpose of the phone call? Who will pay for the hotel room? How much does the room cost?

How will James confirm the booking? Then complete the table with other expressions from the previous phone calls. You work for Franks Ltd. Answer the phone. Ask to speak to Ms Pearson. Leave a message asking her to call you back urgently. Now practise mini-telephone calls with a partner for these situations. Remember to swap roles. Ask when you should call back.

You work for Cunnings Enterprise. The Sales Manager is away at a conference and will return to the office on Friday. You are not available in the morning. You are Mr Evans at Clarkson Cars. You are free on Tuesday and would prefer a meeting in the morning. You work for Jefferson Ltd.

Your new catalogue is at the printers but you can send a copy by email. Voice mail Voice mail, or answerphones, are useful tools for both land lines and mobile phones. They allow a company to leave an automatic message regarding opening hours, holidays or alternative contact numbers, while individuals can leave a personal message for when they are unavailable. With voice mail, callers can leave a message directly for the person they are trying to contact without the risk that a colleague forgets to pass on a message.

It is easy to remotely access voice mail messages which is convenient when you are out of the office for long periods of time. Many companies now use an automated information system for answering phone calls instead of the traditional figure of a switchboard operator or receptionist. These systems have a recorded message and a menu, listing the various services or departments available and the relevant number to press.

This saves time and money for the company, but can be exasperating for the caller when the menus are excessively complicated or time-consuming. Listening 1. There are two extra options you do not need. Face-to-face communication In spite of all the hi-tech ways of communicating, face-to-face communication remains one of the most important forms of communication in the world of business. Within a company, face-to-face conversations are common between colleagues to discuss daily schedules, problems and solutions, as well as for meetings or presentations.

It is also essential when dealing with people external to the company, whether they are suppliers, potential clients, customers or members of the public. Face-to-face communication is not only fundamental for formal situations, but also for informal occasions such as a quick chat by the coffee machine or socialising during a conference or an exhibition. Naturally, the tone and content of what you say will depend on the context and how well you know your interlocutor, but it is always important to smile and be pleasant and friendly.

When travelling abroad and doing business with people of different nationalities, you also need to be aware of any particular local customs to be respected and sensitive topics to be avoided. In Britain and Japan, for example, it is very important to be on time, but in certain parts of the Arab world it is standard to be kept waiting. It can seem invasive and off-putting. GREETING There are various ways of greeting people in formal and informal situations and it is best to know the custom for the country or nationality in question: shaking hands Europe and the US , bowing Japan , putting your palms together Thailand and so on.

Hugging and kissing is best left to informal occasions and people you know well in order to avoid offence. In other cultures, especially hierarchical ones like Japan and some Middle Eastern countries, it can be seen as disrespectful or even aggressive. In what circumstances is face-to-face communication used in the business world?

Why do you think face-to-face communication is so important? How might what you say change if you know the person you are speaking to? Why should you respect local customs when doing business internationally? Are there any particular customs to observe or conversation topics to avoid when doing business in your country? What other cultural differences are you aware of? Think of a country you would like to travel to. Video conferencing Video conferencing is an integrated audio and visual communications technology that can connect users anywhere in the world.

WhatsApp, Facetime and other similar apps offer this possibility which is fine for personal calls, but a business would normally rely on a professional package and software.

There are many packages available, and at different price points, which allow multiple users to also share files, edit documents and chat.

It is possible to set different security levels and issue access codes in order to protect the content of a web meeting or conference. This technology is of great benefit to businesses of all sizes as it allows participants to take part in meetings without everyone having to travel to the same location, thus saving time and money.

This term refers to an online presentation, often educational in some aspect, during which participating viewers can submit questions and comments. A video conference combines both audio and visual communication. It is not possible to use this technology with multiple users.

A disadvantage is the time it takes to share files and documents. Data security could be an issue during a web meeting. Advantages include cutting costs and travel expenses. The benefits of video conferencing are limited to the business sector. Discuss these questions in class. Presentations are a means of communication used in various business, educational and personal situations.

They are utilised by companies to present projects and plans to employees and also for external uses such as the launch of a new product or service. They can be given by a student at college or a guest speaker at a gala dinner. Even a speech by a family member at a wedding is a kind of presentation.

Therefore being able to give a clear and effective speech or presentation is a key skill everyone should have today. Some key points to think about when preparing a presentation are:. PowerPoint, and other presentation software, can really bring a presentation alive.

This is a phenomenon caused by using too many slides, with too much information on them and then just reading them aloud. How big is it? Have you already been there?

Are they colleagues or strangers? PowerPoint slides? What about non-verbal forms of communication gestures, body language etc.

What outcome is expected? Do you need time for a question and answer session at the end? It can be nerve-wracking to stand in front of a room full of people, therefore many companies send their employees on training courses to improve their verbal communication and presentation skills, and to boost their confidence.

Both oral and written communication can be enhanced by visual communication. Sales figures will be much clearer and easier to read with the data presented in a graph. Therefore it is essential to incorporate visual aids — such as photographs, drawings, maps, tables, diagrams and charts — in order to illustrate, compare, simplify or summarise facts, data and statistics.

However, if these visual aids are not created and used correctly, they can distract and detract from the purpose of the written or oral communication. Take, for example, a presentation where slides are changed before you have a chance to read all the information or a user manual with unclear diagrams and illustrations. How can a company use visual communication?

Why is it important? What do you think the advantages and disadvantages are? Read the text and see if your ideas are the same. This is used to show parts of a whole. It does not show changes over time. This is useful for showing trends or changes over a period of time, particularly when the changes are small.

This is used to compare things between different groups. It can also be used to follow changes over a period of time, especially when the changes are large.

This is used to show similarities or differences between sets of data. This is useful to show a process clearly, using both symbols and text. This represents data with a picture. A key is usually necessary. Now match these sentences to the most suitable diagram or chart.

What have you learnt about business communication? Prepare a short presentation minutes following these guidelines. How are they changing the way business is being done? Write any ten sentences from a business letter and then swap them with a partner, who has to decide if they are suitable for the opening, middle or closing paragraphs. Can he call you back tomorrow? Judy Lennon speaking. This is Judy. Can I help you? Is he in today? Can you speak up, please? In pairs, practise these phone calls.

Caller 1 Vuoi parlare con il Sig. Vuoi sapere se ha ricevuto il tuo fax. Chiedi se chi ha chiamato vuole lasciare un messaggio. Non hai ricevuto nessun fax. Have you ever thought about…? Firstly, … Concluding a presentation. If there are any questions, please feel free to ask. Looking at these photographs, As you can see, The next slide lists This line graph illustrates The areas covered by. Spelling changes may be necessary.

Change these verbs and adjectives into their noun form and write them under the correct column. You may need to change the spelling. He works for a retail company. We use Which…? Which goods or services could you live without?

We use What…? What is the importance of labour? Advertising is used to help consumers be aware of products. The goods are transported from the place of low demand to the place of greater demand. The world economy is affected by global events. Production is divided into three main sectors. The primary sector refers to industries engaged in the production or extraction of natural resources such as crops, oil, and metals.

The secondary sector refers to the manufacturing of products. It is also known as manufacturing of goods. The tertiary sector refers to those industries which provide services. Si parla invece di canale indiretto quando vengono utilizzati vari intermediari, ad esempio grossisti e dettaglianti. B Read the article and decide if these sentences are true T or false F. Chatbots mean that customer service agents may no longer have employment.

Deep learning is how AI chatbots are able to learn to deal efficiently with customer requests. Smaller companies are advised not to use chatbots until the costs drop. A good chatbot should be able to convince people it is a real person. Some clients would prefer to speak to customer service assistants than use chatbots. Discuss these questions in small groups. Do you think this is positive? Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Write an email words to the director of the company to suggest that employees bring their own devices to work.

Case analysis: BarkBox Read this description of subscription boxes. Why do consumers like them? Why are they a popular business model? Subscription boxes follow the same idea as magazine or newspaper subscriptions, but they are for retail products such as specialty foods and wines, beauty products, make up, books, stationery, baby stuff, craft kits and many more items.

There are probably close to subscription box services in the world, with many comparison and review websites to help you find the best box for your needs or wants. They are popular with consumers due to the element of surprise and anticipation as the exact contents of the box are unknown. They may also be convenient and cost-effective. As a business model, they are a simple form of e-commerce.

Operations, such as storage and shipping, are straightforward for most products. Thanks to the knowing the number of subscribers, a company can calculate demand easily, with costs and revenue remaining relatively stable. Read about BarkBox. What kind of subscription box is it? Is it successful? Why do you think this is? The employees, including the CEO Matt Meeker who has a Great Dane called Hugo, are all dog lovers and their dogs regularly test out the products before they are sent to customers.

List the advantages of subscription boxes from the point of view of the customer and the business, using the points in the texts on page 52 and the box to help.

What about any disadvantages and potential problems for both parties? Think about different aspects of the business, such as distribution, warehousing, e-commerce, satisfying needs or wants. What do you think will happen to BarkBox?

Discuss the pros and cons of these ideas and decide which one s the company should introduce. BarkBox continues to be successful and has served over 2 million dogs. However, the company has remained faithful to dogs and has not started any boxes or services for other pets. It remains committed to helping dog shelters and supporting rescue projects, also through the app BarkBuddy, which connects people with dogs in need of new homes.

For dogs, BarkBox is like the joy of 1 million belly scratches. Include the following information:. Use some visual materials, such as slides or even an example box of the products. When supply and demand are equal, the market is in equilibrium. The amount of goods supplied is exactly the same as the amount of goods demanded and everyone individuals, firms, or countries is satisfied with the economic condition.

Any change in either the supply or demand curves will change this situation. If the price is above the equilibrium, there is a surplus of the product while if it is below, there is a shortage. Types of economic systems Today, there are three major economic systems: planned economy, free market economy and mixed economy.

The factors of production are owned by the government which is responsible for all decisions regarding production land, labour and capital and distribution. It establishes which goods will be produced, the quantity and their price rather than relying on the market forces of supply and demand.

Socialism and communism are associated with a centrally planned economy. In fact, countries such as the ex-USSR and other Eastern European countries used to follow this model before moving towards the mixed economy model in the s.

Today, some countries which follow a planned economy system to some extent are Cuba and North Korea. Free market economy This kind of economic system is also called the capitalist or laissez-faire system. Unlike the planned economy model where the government is in control, under the free market system it is the private sector which organises economic activity.

Resources are privately owned and decisions regarding production, distribution and price are determined by the factors of supply and demand.

However, it has to be said that a true free market economy with no government intervention whatsoever does not exist. Nations such as the USA which follow the free market model do still have some degree of government involvement, for example the regulation of certain industries. Mixed economy The mixed economy system, as the name implies, is a combination of the characteristics of both the free market and planned economy models.

No exact formula exists since countries can adopt more or fewer elements of the two systems, and therefore can be closer to the ideal of private ownership and capitalism or more towards public ownership and socialism. However, both the private sector and public sector have a role in the economic decisions regarding the country. The public sector, on the other hand, is generally responsible for providing many essential services such as education and healthcare. Capitalism is a form of this economic model.

Communism follows this economic system. Government intervention is absent or minimal. Consumer demand determines the price of a product. Education and healthcare are provided by the public sector. Many countries changed to this model at the end of the last century.

Resources are not privately owned. Governments can intervene and regulate economic activity. Do you think it is successful? In your country, which goods or services are provided by the private sector and which by the public sector? These organisations vary in size and structure from one-person businesses to SMEs and multinationals.

Sole traders A sole trader or single ownership company is a business that is owned by one person. It may have one or more employees. It is the most common form of ownership in the United Kingdom. This means any or all money that the owner has invested could be lost thus leading to bankruptcy. Due to the small size of the business, banks will not lend large sums and the sole trader may not be able to find other forms of long-term finance.

A sole trader cannot buy in bulk and have the same discounts as larger businesses and so is more likely to be hurt by competitive prices. Sole traders are often successful because they can offer better customer service e. Many customers may also prefer to meet the owner face-to-face and, being part of his or her community, a sole trader has the advantage of being more involved with local people, in local events and even in local politics.

Partnerships In a partnership two or more people own and share the costs and risks of a business. There are two types of partnership: ordinary or unlimited partnership and limited partnership.

It is common for professionals in the service industry, like doctors, dentists and lawyers, to go into partnership. A partnership has no legal existence distinct from the partners themselves.

If one of the partners resigns, dies or goes bankrupt, the partnership must be dissolved and rewritten to include new partners or transformed into a sole trader organisation. All of this can put stress on the partnership, which can damage the business.

What is a partnership? What is a deed of partnership? What does it state? A limited liability company LLC or joint-stock company is a business enterprise formed by a minimum of two shareholders, but is a separate entity for both legal and tax purposes. This means that shareholders can lose the money they have invested in the company, but their personal assets are not at risk.

The capital of a limited liability company is divided into shares. Management decisions are made by either a director or board of directors, who may also be shareholders. They can be quoted on the Stock Exchange. Vodafone Group Plc, with headquarters in Newbury, is one of the leading telecommunications groups in the world.

What is a limited liability company? Where does the finance come from? What financial risks do shareholders run? How is this different to a sole trader or partnership? The International Cooperative Alliance ICA is an independent, non-governmental organisation which represents cooperatives worldwide. It aims to increase awareness about cooperatives and how they can help individuals and communities by putting people before profit.

ICA provides technical assistance, support and information on best practice, as well as helping cooperatives to contact and trade with each other around the world. All members take an active role in the organisation. When decisions need to be made, each member has the right to one vote regardless of how much money they have invested. As a means of reducing unemployment and helping underdeveloped communities, governments often give subsidies, low interest loans, tax relief and other assistance to co-ops.

This gives the partners — the franchisees — the opportunity to enter a business, especially in highly competitive industries, without having to build a brand or invent new services or products. The franchisee takes advantage of the success of an established business while the franchisor can get a quicker return on investment.

There is no set way to buy a licence. Franchise businesses. The organisation which allows the use of its brand, trademarks or products for a fee. A written legal document that defines the relationship and obligations of the two parties involved.

Find out about one franchise business and prepare a short presentation. Neil explains how franchising worked for them. So we bought a small yacht brokerage in Wales. While business was OK, we knew that in order to grow, we needed to overcome the geographical drawbacks, i.

The Internet seemed an obvious solution. We included large numbers of photos — about 60 per boat — and detailed descriptions. This proved the key to success. Not only were we reaching far more potential customers, those that came in person had a much higher propensity to buy than in the more traditional yacht brokerage scenario. We got specialist help for all the legal aspects and franchise agreements.

As well as meeting face-to-face at conferences and company events, we use online forums and Skype to facilitate daily contact and sharing of best practice between the businesses.

We should have stuck to our guns and rejected a couple of applicants because we later had to get rid of them as they were unsuitable. Reading comprehension B Read the article and choose the correct option. A to explain how to start a boatshed. A A specialist organisation recommended it. B A customer suggested it. C A competitor asked to purchase the company.

A its small size B its remote location C the small number of boats for sale. B only in person. C both online and in person. B were more likely to buy when they viewed the boats. C bought more boats during each visit.

A A franchisor should evaluate potential franchisees carefully. B A franchisor should recruit as many franchisees as possible. C A franchisee should evaluate the franchisor carefully. A multinational corporation MNC has its headquarters in one country but has branches or owns companies in many different countries. Examples of multinationals are car manufacturers like Toyota, oil companies like Exxon Mobil, technology companies like HP, Apple and Google and food and drink companies like Coca-Cola.

The structure of an MNC can vary but often there is a holding company which completely owns or has the controlling interest in subsidiaries in other countries. Multinationals are able to avoid tax and trade barriers, since they can locate parts of their operations in countries which have low corporation tax rates or fewer barriers for allowing outside companies to enter the market. They can also take advantage of lower resource costs, such as raw materials and labour, in order to lower their operating costs and be able to offer cheaper goods and services.

And what about the disadvantages? Why do you think that is? Justify your opinion. Micro-multinationals Today, it is not necessary to be a large business or huge multinational in order to go global or cross over borders. You can go from start-up to global in one step. Email, chat, social networks, VoIP and cloud computing are all available for free on the web. Technology is a must-have for any micro-multinational business and it means they do not have to invest so heavily in other resources, thus keeping costs low.

Investing in an online presence is also fundamental, since a well thought-out website is the gateway to doing international business. It opens up business channels, offers global marketing and is a place to connect with and communicate with customers. Another aspect which must not be overlooked is understanding the tax, legal and business environments the company will be operating in.

Doing research carefully in this area should mean no surprises later. There has never been a better time to be an entrepreneur and start a micro-multinational. And much of this is thanks to the inexpensive technology and services that are readily available to everyone. The first Angry Birds game was launched in by a Finnish video games company, started by three university students.

It was an immediate success and there have been many other versions of the game and spin-offs such as cartoons and toys. A start-up company, or start-up for short, is a company that is in the first stages of its operation.

It often has the potential to grow rapidly with minimum investment. The initial finance usually comes from the entrepreneur who has conceived and developed the product or service, although further financing from venture capitalists is essential if the start-up is to grow further and become successful.

During the late s a lot of start-ups were dot-com companies, eBay and Amazon being two winning examples. In Italy, it is possible for anyone under 35 to open a simplified Ltd S. This is aimed at encouraging more young people to start up their own business. With crowdsourcing, the idea is to offer a particular task or project to many people through the Internet in order to reach the highest level of ideas and the best possible quality by combining their skills and knowledge.

Using the combined power, skills and knowledge of many people is not actually a new concept, but modern technology has made it quicker, easier and more productive. It is also Longitude Act used for problem-solving, getting A very early example of crowdsourcing is the creative ideas for new products and Longitude Act. While at sea, 18th century navigators start-ups, and funding for projects.

A Board of Longitude was set up to evaluate the solutions, which had to be accurate within half however, of the information not a degree, and to decide the amount of the reward. Wikipedia also One winner was John Harrison who built a marine uses the concept of crowdsourcing timekeeper that kept the correct time whatever the to raise the money to continue to humidity, temperature and movement of the sea. B Read the texts and decide if these sentences are true T or false F.

Crowdsourcing started with the arrival of the Internet. Marketing departments may find crowdsourcing useful. Wikipedia is the most famous example of crowdsourcing information. The Longitude Act can be considered a form of crowdsourcing. The prize money was offered by the Board of Longitude. In the UK the gig economy accounted for 4. We think this is significant for us here in California, 3 This is because California is often considered to be a leader in establishing policies that are adopted by other states.

The extent to which AB5 will actually affect wages of drivers and other contract employees remains to be seen, according to Veena Dubal, an associate professor of employment law at UC Hastings College of Law. Unions and companies all over the world are watching to see what happens next. Read the article and choose the correct sentence for each gap.

There are two extra sentences you do not need. Do you think it is likely to increase? Co-branding, while not actually an integration or merger, is a form of marketing partnership when two companies join forces to unite two different brands of goods or services in order to raise awareness and increase sales. The strength of each separate brand is brought together to enhance an existing product e.

Smarties and Fruttolo yogurt snack or to create a new product e. Types of company integration Businesses need to grow in order to remain competitive and increase their market share. This can be achieved through internal growth, for example increasing the amount of capital invested by shareholders, and also through integration, that is external growth. These two terms are used when one company buys another one.

A hostile takeover is when the target company opposes the takeover operation. Two or more companies agree to start a new business or project together. They invest capital and share resources and costs. Read the text and complete this summary. There are various ways of combining two or more companies into one entity. Organisation chart Organisation charts are diagrams that illustrate the hierarchy within a company in terms of authority and responsibility.

The shareholders of a company elect a board of directors who, in turn, elect a managing director or CEO to run the company. Each department or division is headed up by a director, with various assistant directors, managers and other staff working below them.

Reading comprehension Look at the organisation chart and work out what positions these initials stand for. Write the correct job title next to each person.

There are three extra job titles you do not need. ES Prepare a short presentation minutes about the main features of the different types of private business organisations.

You Might Also Like

No Comments

Leave a Reply