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You probably remember learning about nouns at some point, but you may be hard-pressed to jobs usa gov federal near me zippia what they are.

Nouns are incredibly important in spoken and written language, usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 the good news is that they’re also pretty easy to understand. Figuring out the basics of how nouns operate in sentences will help you learn lots of other more complex rules down the road.

A noun is a part of speech, and parts of speech simply refer to types of words. You may be familiar with a lot of basic parts of speech, like nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Nouns identify people, places, things, and ideas. Nouns can be categorized as either common or proper. Common nouns name general people, places, things, and ideas, while proper nouns name specific people, places, things, and ideas.

For example, examples of nouns naming people would be:. In our first column, we have general, or common, nouns. In our second column, we have specific, or proper, nouns. Note that typically, the first letter in a common noun isn’t capitalized unless that common noun is the first word in a sentence. The first letter in a proper noun is typically capitalized. Nouns also identify places. Common nouns naming places include 'hometown,’ 'country,’ and 'airport.

Nouns identifying things include 'space shuttle,’ 'movie,’ and 'cartoon. A key thing to remember about nouns is that every sentence needs to have one to be complete. Some sentences have pronouns instead of nouns. We’ll get more into that in another lesson. Nouns perform and often receive the actions being performed in sentences, and they play other roles in sentences, too.

Without nouns, we’d end up with incomplete sentence fragments like, 'walks around’ or 'stomped on. Nouns in these sentences would tell us who was doing what and where. For example, 'Bigfoot walks around his apartment. There is an exception to the rule that every sentence needs a noun. Some sentences contain short commands, like 'Leave! The understood noun, or pronoun, here is 'You.

Remember that nouns are parts of speech that name people, places, things, and ideas. They can be general, also known as common nounsor they can be proper nouns that name particular people, places, things, or ideas. Every sentence must include a noun or pronoun to be complete, with the exception of short, commanding sentences in which the noun or pronoun is understood.

Today, I picked up a few thing at the usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99, and then I picked up my childs at school. Just a regular day in my lifes, like many other daies! As the problems in that sentence demonstrate, it’s important to pay attention to whether the nouns we use are singular or plural and to know how to make nouns plural the right way.

Most nouns are easily made plural, but as with a lot of things in the Usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 language, there are a few nouns for which different rules apply. A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea, while a plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea. There are a few basic rules to remember when it comes to turning a singular noun into a plural noun.

These are the easy ones. You can just add an 's’ to alien, taco, or skateboard, for example, and you instantly have aliens, tacos, and skateboards.

Singular nouns ending in 's’, 'ss’, 'sh’, 'ch’, 'x’, or 'z’ need an 'es’ at the end to become plural. So, if you have a secretive, alcoholic octopus drinking wine from a glass behind a bush, and you decide that one of those just isn’t enough, you’d have two octopuses drinking from glasses behind bushes. The same would be true for a crutch, a box, and a blintz, which would become crutches, boxes, and blintzes. Note that some singular nouns ending in 's’ or 'z’ require that you double the 's’ or 'z’ before adding an 'es’.

For example, a really bad day might involve you having not one pop quiz, but two pop quizzes. So I can have one deer or two deer – or one sheep or two sheep.

Or I ссылка be hooked on one T. Some nouns ending in 'f’ require that you change the 'f’ to a 'v’ and then add an 'es’ at the end to make them plural. For example, you might have not just one elf sneaking into your house on Christmas night, but two elves. The English language loves to have exceptions, though, so the houses in your neighborhood have roofs, not rooves, and your wacky old uncle has crazy beliefs, not believes.

Nouns that end in 'y’ often require that you change the 'y’ to an 'i’, and then add an 'es’ at the end to make them plural. So while you may enjoy making silly faces at a stranger’s baby, you may not be thrilled to find yourself surrounded by strangers’ babies on a long flight.

English wouldn’t be half as fun without lots of little exceptions, and there’s one with this rule. Luckily there’s a tip to help usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 out with this one. With a noun that ends with 'y’, if there’s a vowel 'a, e, i, o, u’ right before the 'y’, then you just add an 's’ at the end to make the noun plural.

For example, I’m not certain, but it seems like it would be a lot of fun to ride on an airplane surrounded by monkeys or toys. This next one doesn’t come up all that often, but it’s a good one to remember. Most people don’t get it right, so you’ll be pretty impressive when you show that you know how it’s done. For example, there are two runners-up in a beauty pageant, not runner-ups. There might be a meeting for editors-in-chief, not editor-in-chiefs. Many people might be quick to tell you that just one is plenty; they don’t need multiple mothers-in-law.

Finally, there are some odds-and-ends irregular plurals. You no doubt know that childs don’t go to the dentist when their tooths hurt; children go when their teeth hurt.

There are a number of these irregular plurals, including the singular nouns man and woman with the plurals men and women, and the singular nouns foot, goose, and mouse, with the plurals feet, geese, and mice. There’s not a hard and fast rule for this handful of irregular plurals; just take note of them when you see them to become familiar with them.

Become familiar with the few irregular plurals that require changing the actual singular form of the noun to become plural. The apostrophe is that little mark that goes up at the top, in between and after letters in certain words.

There are a few different situations where you’ll have to use an apostrophe, like when you’re forming a contraction or making a noun possessive. If you’re like a lot of people, you may sort of know when to use an apostrophe, and you usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 sort of know where to put it, but you may also feel like you’re kind of winging it a little. We’ll save contractions and other uses of apostrophes for another lesson, but here, we’ll cover the basics of how to make nouns possessive – and where to put the apostrophe – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 that you’ll never have to wing it again.

You may remember that a noun is a word that names a person, place, thing or idea. Examples of nouns would be 'teacher’ and 'horse. In other words, we use the possessive form of a noun to show that someone has something, like a brother’s car or a teacher’s briefcase.

We create the possessive form of nouns in a few different ways, depending on whether the noun is singular or plural and whether a plural noun ends in s. To make a singular noun possessive, add an apostrophe and an s. So to demonstrate that my friend which is a singular noun has a surfboard, I’d need to make the word 'friend’ possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s to wind up with 'friend’s surfboard. This rule applies even if the singular noun that you want to make possessive already ends with an s.

So, you would say that the kindergarten class’s recital is next week. The same goes for singular nouns that end in z or x. You’d say, therefore, that Dr. Mendez’s lecture was interesting, or that Ms. Delacroix’s car is in the shop. You’ll get usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 – usa jobs government jobs login pageant guru99 extra gold star when you get this one right, as it’s one that a lot of people get wrong.

Note that you may sometimes have to show what’s called joint possessionwhich occurs when two or more people own something together. For example, a husband and wife might jointly own a car, or two siblings might share a bedroom. To show joint possession, add an apostrophe and an s to the end of the last noun. So, you would refer to Jack and Juanita’s car or Keisha and Jane’s bedroom. A word of caution with this: if you really mean to communicate that several people own their own separate things, then you would express that a bit differently.

For example, if Tasha and Marc have each finished their own, separate tests, we would refer to Tasha’s and Marc’s tests. The fact that we’ve put an apostrophe and an s at the end of each of the nouns in this phrase signals to the reader that we have separate ownership here, not joint, shared ownership. The rules for forming possessives with plural nouns are a bit different, but still pretty straightforward.

Most, though not all, nouns require an s or es at the ссылка to become plural. Plural means more than one. So, the plural of 'guitar’ is 'guitars,’ and the plural of 'glass’ is 'glasses. To make a plural noun that ends in s possessive, add just an apostrophe – not an apostrophe and an s. We’ll look at two example sentences with the nouns 'Smiths’ and 'kids,’ which are plural and which end in s.

Making each of these plural nouns possessive requires simply adding an apostrophe at the end. So you would say that the Smiths’ house was remodeled or that the kids’ toys are in the driveway. There are some irregular plural nouns that are plural, but don’t end in s. Examples include men, women, children and deer. To make a plural noun that does not end in s possessive, add an apostrophe and an s.

This works the same way as when you’re making a singular noun possessive.

 
 

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Robinson, the engineer officer who had been keeping guard over the Pakli brigade, was ordered by Abbott to withdraw his men from a duty no longer feasible. Abbott himself fell back upon Nara at the foot of the Gandgarh Range, and Nicholson returned to the neighbourhood of Hasan Abdal 1. In the last week of September the tireless Nicholson was off again upon another bold but fruitless errand.

Not a moment was lost in sending off Mrs. This movement, whether born of treachery or timidity, filled Mrs. Lawrence with natural dismay. She had written to Nicholson from Chakuwal, telling him of her danger, and entreating his speedy help. On nearing Chakuwal, and learning what had happened, he tried hard to overtake the party before they recrossed the Indus; but in vain. Nearly six months were to elapse before the lady and her little ones found rest and shelter among their own people at Lahore.

The whole country between the Indus and the Jhilam was now seething with disorder. The officials of the Lahore Government were flying from their posts, or casting in their lot with the Sikh insurgents.

It was another of the lost opportunities which marked the progress of the second Sikh war. It soon became a question for Nicholson what should be his next move. To return to the neighbourhood of Hasan Abdal was no longer possible. To stay where he was with no prospect of help from any quarter, with enemies gathering fast around him, would be courting inevitable disaster. He resolved therefore to cross the Jhilam and make his way to some point commanding the road from Multan to Lahore.

Here he was promptly reinforced with men, arms, and ammunition by Sir F. Currie, whose letters to the Governor-General teemed with the heartiest praise of his bold, capable, and trusty subaltern. At Gujranwala, midway between Ramnagar and Lahore, Nicholson halted, waiting for further news or orders from Lahore. Our professed allies the Sikhs had now become open and determined foes. The siege of Multan had to be suspended for many weeks pending the arrival of strong reinforcements from Bombay.

Hardly had Reynell Taylor set out from Bannu on the extreme western frontier to join the British camp at Surajkhund, when the Bannu troops, the flower of the Sikh army, broke out in fierce revolt, slew one of their own colonels and the loyal commandant.

But Hodson was ready to disappoint them. They took possession of the gateway, says Hodson, 4 des P ite the scowls and threats, and all but open resistance, of the Sikh garrison. Earlier in the same month the flame of rebellion had reached Jalandhar, where a few Sikh fanatics strove to rouse the people against their new masters.

But the plotters reckoned without John Lawrence and the civil officers under his command. With the aid of a few troops supplied by Brigadier Wheeler, the September rising was speedily quelled.

Two months later the bold commissioner led his own levies into the field against yet larger bodies of insurgents. Ably seconded by Barnes and Saunders, and with little help from regular troops, a brief but brilliant campaign sufficed to put down a dangerous outbreak in a province unaccustomed to its new yoke.

Had we not thus promptly acted, I am convinced that the rebellion would have assumed a formidable aspect, and have cost blood and treasure to suppress V Down to the last week of October the energy, tact, and cool courage of George Lawrence at Peshawar held back from open mutiny the strong Sikh garrison of the great frontier post below the Khaibar mountains. But the Bannu regiments were near at hand; Sher Singh was moving northwards as if to join his father; and the Amir of Kabul, who in July had declined to war against us, was now casting in his lot with the insurgent leaders, who pledged themselves to restore him his long-lost province of Peshawar.

On October 24 the mutineers turned their guns upon the Residency. The Muhammadan troops could no longer be trusted, except a few score Pathans, who, with the Sikh governor, remained true to their salt. That night Lawrence, Bowie, and Thompson, the medical officer, rode away with their Pathan escort just in time to escape certain capture, if not a violent death.

As the road to Attock was already closed against them, they made their way to Kohat, where Mrs. Lawrence and her children, some weeks before, had found shelter with the family of Sultan Muhammad after their vain attempt to reach Lahore.

With the proverbial treachery of his race, this man was now arranging, for his own ambitious ends, to deliver up to Chatar Singh the refugees who were enjoying his fatal hospitality. The brave old chief received his noble captive with all the honours due to a princely guest.

Abbott withdrew his troops from the open country into the heart of the Hazara hills, and defied his enemies from the walls of Srikot. Nicholson meanwhile lode off with a troop of his Pathans to place himself at the disposal of Sir F. Currie and Lord Gough.

Reynell Taylor was back again in Bannu, eager to assert the power of our arms against Sikh rebels and Afghan invaders. The siege and capture of Lakki, a strong little fort on a branch of the Indus, formed one of the most romantic episodes in the whole story of the second Sikh war.

Dalhousie himself joined in the chorus of praise, led by Herbert Edvvardes, for a feat of arms which saved the Derajat from passing into Afghan hands 2.

By that time many things had happened which made the hearts of our countrymen in India swell or sink by turns within them. In the dark of the next morning Gough himself led out a com pact and eager force of all arms on a strong reconnaissance to his front. So far all had gone well. But Nicholson was there to aid him, and his Pathans were guarding the ford at Wazirabad, some twelve miles higher hp stream.

By means of the boats which they had collected, and of the help which Nicholson afforded him in various ways, Thackwell was enabled to cross the river at Wazirabad, and march the next afternoon. But instead of surprising the enemy, Thackwell himself was to be taken by surprise. Then followed a long and distant cannonade, varied by vain attempts to turn both flanks of Thackwell s line.

About 4 p. Our men were burning to be up and at their opponents who had been pitching long shots among them as they lay for hours on the grass. Both Nicholson and Sir Henry Lawrence were strongly of opinion that Thackwell missed a great opportunity when he decided to attempt no forward movement until the morrow.

They felt sure that the force opposed to him did not greatly outnumber his own, nor include any of the best troops in the old Khalsa army 2. When the morrow dawned, ThackweU’s assailants were miles away from Sadulapur, on their way towards the ravines and jungles bordering the Jhilarn. In plain English, the Sikh leader had the best of the game thus far.

At this time Mrs. George Lawrence, her children, and Mr. Thompson were confined in the hill-fort of Sakku, beyond the Jhilam. They were kindly treated ; but Mrs. Lawrence had not yet been allowed to see her husband, who was lodged in another fort twenty miles away. Meanwhile for several weeks after Sadulapur that army uas destined to remain idle in the open country between the Chinab and the jungles near the JhUarn. Such was the will of the imperious Governor-General, who held the poorest opinion of Gough and his commanders, and kept ail his attention fixed upon Multan.

The city itself was carried by storm on January 2, ; and the first news ol its capture was brought to Dalhousie by Sir Henry Lawrence himself, who had hastened back to India in time to share in the labours of the siege. Early in the same month Herbert fled from Attock, driven by the sudden defection of his garrison from the post he had so stoutly defended for seven weeks.

The river-fortress opened its gates to Chatar Singh, among whose captives Herbert also was speedily numbered. Our loss has been severe, and the mismanagement very disgraceful; yet it will be called a victory, and lauded accordingly. Oh, for one month of Sir Charles Isapiei! The enemy outnumbered us by more than two to one. Only half an hour later our brave infantry were launched into a thorny wilderness of whose nature and extent their leaders knew nothing, in order to carry the batteries in their front.

One brigade advanced with unloaded muskets, without a field-gun in support. The 24th Foot, outstripping their native comrades, reached the batteries only to be driven back with terrible slaughter by bodies of Sikh horse and foot. Things went better in other parts of the field, where our infantry advanced firing, with guns on their flanks.

But the cavalry on the right 01 our line got perplexed in the dense jungle, mistook one order for another, and finally fled helter-skelter before a few hundred Sikh horse. Their flight exposed the nearest brigades of infantry to imminent danger, and caused the loss of four horse-artillery guns.

Several of our colours were also missing on that day of carnage. J , drawn to their entrenched camp on the banks of the Jhilam. In its results, however, Chilianwala seemed less of a victory than a drawn battle.

For as soon as the enemy learned how things stood, parties of Sikh gunners and camp-followers came down in the dead of the night, carried off some twenty-eight guns, and murdered every man they found alive. Both Henry Lawrence and John Nicholson were engaged throughout the battle in carrying orders from the Com- mander-in-Chief to the commanders of divisions and brigades, and in keeping him acquainted with what was going on outside the range of his own observation.

To Herbert Edwardes was assigned the honour of forwarding Mulraj himself a close prisoner to Lahore, while the British general sent off three of his brigades in turn towards the camp of the Commander-in-Chief.

Gough was compelled to wait for reinforcements; the Sikh leaders were making overtures of submission on terms which Dalhousie would not concede.

He would have nothing short of unconditional surrender. In view of late events the old Khalsa pride could not yet bring itself to stoop so low. They would try the chance of one more grapple with the victors of Subraon. They certainly made a bold stroke for victory. Baffled by rain-swollen fords and British vigilance in their attempts to cross the Chinab, the Sikh leaders began to mass their forces around the walled city of Gujardt, near the Chinab, some miles northward of Wazirabad.

Religious as well as! The Chameleon, Mimpore, On February 15 Gough turned back from Chilianwala. On the 20th the last of his reinforcements came into line at Shadiwal, about three miles from the Sikh position, making up his whole strength to twenty-three thousand men and ninety guns.

The hosts arrayed under Sher and Chatar Singh numbered fifty thousand horse and foot, with sixty guns. For once the fiery old warrior gave his powerful artillery full play. When at last they could make no further reply, and the two villages on our right front had been stormed by our infantry, the long lines of British horse, foot, and guns swept forward to complete the discomfiture of a beaten foe. Our own loss in killed and wounded amounted only to ; a small price to pay for a victory which decided, once for all, the question of Sikh or British rule in the Land of the Five Rivers.

During the long pause after Chiliamvala he was in the saddle day after day, leading his troop on reconnoitring errands, exploring the country for commissariat supplies, or striving to protect the peaceful villagers from the raids of numberless camp-followers who never thought of paying for what they could pilfer or take I 2?

He had reason to believe that some of Gough’s soldiers were concerned in these outrages, which shocked alike his stern sense of discipline and his generous sympathy with the victims of injustice. He never could bring himself to see a wrong done without raising his voice against the wrong-doer.

But Nicholson found that flogging was of no avail for checking plunder, and in February he applied to Lord Gough for leave to exercise the powers of a provost- marshal. Amidst these and other occupations Nicholson found time to exchange greetings with various friends in camp, especially with Chamberlain whom he had not seen for six years past, and to talk over more private affairs with his brother Charles, whose regiment, the 31st Native Intantry, bore its part with much credit in all the rough work of that campaign.

No one who saw these two together at this period could doubt the closeness of their relationship. In form, feature, gait, and bearing, the younger man might have passed for a faithful copy of what the elder had been a few years before.

His regiment was at Belgaum in , when the storm-clouds were lowering over the Punjab. His letters to his mother during the latter half of that year show how tenderly he strove to allay her fears for the safety of her eldest son. Perhaps you may not have heard that he has got his company, though only nine years in the service. Fiom Vingorla William writes again on. October ix: Pray do not be alarmed about John. Uncle James [Hogg] would, I am sure, write and tell you what he knows.

In camp I saw the paper most to be depended on, and it said that Nicholson was shut up in Attock. He was ordered to return there by the Resident, but on what account has not yet clearly’ transpired. His services are likely to be again very soon in requisition, for they have been already very valuable to the Government, so the papers say. I cannot give you any particulars, as John and I never correspond. I sometimes hear John spoken ol, and always in terms of the highest praise and commendation, which he certainly well deserves.

He died at Sakkar on June 1, ? He had suffered greatly for some weeks past from the heat of one of the hottest stations in all India. A certain mystery hung over his untimely death. One morning near the end of May he was absent from parade.

Those who looked for him found him in bed with two ribs broken, and many bruises about his head and body. From that time until his death, a day or two later, he remained unconscious. Nicholson of her loss could only suggest that her son had walked out of the window in his sleep, had fallen from the verandah down a cliff, and then crawled bade somehow to his bed.

This conjecture, however plausible, still left something to explain. Local opinion at any rate took another and a darker view. After a search of many hours he succeeded in securing nine guns, which brought the number then captured up to fifty-three. But to address them to such a man as Henry Lawrence seems much like the proverbial carrying of coals to Newcastle. Lawrence and her fellow-captives had been carried off from Sakku towards Rawal Pindi. Nicholson longed to attempt their rescue.

As for their leaders, they too began to come in 1 One of ihe passes through the Salt Range, which bisects the Sind-Sagar Doab. At every stage of Gilbeits advance fresh bands of war-worn Sikhs were brought into camp by their sirdars.

Many a grey-bearded veteran paused reluctantly before the pile of weapons to which he must now add his own, as the price of his promised freedom. As the two Sikh leaders, accompanied by George Lawrence, passed down the ranks of an army still hungering for one more fight, they were assailed with loud reproaches for selling their faithful soldiers to the Farangi 1.

Their fate, however, was already sealed. Next morning, March 11, the two sirdars with all their chief officers gave up their swords to General Gilbert in his camp at Hurmak.

On this occasion John Nicholson, who never forgot a face he had once seen, recognized one poor fellow passing on to the tent in which he had to lay down his arms. Your guru [pastor] should have advised you better.

Just you try it yourself, sahib. This final act of surrender proved the death-blow to Sikh dominion in the Land of the Five Rivers. He had still to lead his staunch soldiers up and down hill, and across the Indus to the mouth of the Khaibar Pass, in close pursuit of Dost Muhammad’s Afghans, who had made themselves masters of Peshawar and Attock, and had fought against us at Gujarat. On the morning of the 17th he himself, with his cavalry and light guns, reached the Indus at Attock just in time to catch the Afghans in the act of burning the bridge of boats.

As we came up this morning they evacuated the fort and broke up the bridge consisting of sixteen boats, four of which they burned. Knocking five marches into three, he reached Peshawar on March 21, within a week of his starting from Rawal Pindi. He had not run down all his game, but he had fulfilled the task assigned him by chasing 1 Abbott, Narrative.

All India, from Peshawar to Cape Comorin, had 1 become red. No fear of any one in this quarter getting up a row about it. All regard it as annexed already. There was hardly an Anglo-Indian, except Henry Lawrence, who did not own that annexation had become as necessary as even Lawrence allowed it to Tbe just. Lord Hardinge had long since foreseen the failure of his efforts to build up a strong Sikh government at Lahore. In a characteristic letter to Sir H. Paorie, 35th August, I do not believe it.

And 1 hear Partab Singh s corps has actually advanced from Rawal Pindi. I intended writing you at the time; but sleep overpowered me, before the writing materials came. In spite of his own dislike for government by Boards, Dalhousie now established a Board of Administration in which Henry Lawrence, as president, was to be aided and kept in order by two civilian colleagues, John Lawrence and Charles Mansel, both men of pre-eminent fitness for the task that lay before them.

To John Lawrence was entrusted the great department of revenue and finance ; while Mansel, presently succeeded by Robert Montgomery, directed all matters of police and public justice. The duties of these subalterns, nearly half of whom belonged to the Indian army, were even more multifarious than those discharged by a district officer in the North-West Provinces.

By tliis admixture of soldiers and civilians on the! Happily for those who first entered upon this work, the mass of the people were quite prepared to welcome a change of masters. He himself was received with open arms by the mass of his new subjects, who had already learned to note the contrast between a grinding Sikh tyranny and the strong yet.

It was not long before the Nicholson legend entered upon a still more remarkable phase. In this year , a certain Gosain, or Hindu devotee, discovered in the popular hero a new Avatar, or incarnation of the Brahmanic godhead. Impelled by whatever motive, he began to preach at Hasan Abdal the worship of his new god Nikalsain. Five or six of his brother Gosains embraced the new creed, and the sect of Nikalsainis became an historical fact. Driven from his presence by repeated threats and blows, the founder of the new sect retired to Hazara, where James Abbott was now ruling over a tranquil country and a contented people.

A hut to shelter him was not easy to find at a time when fugitives from Sikh oppression were thronging back to their ancestral homes. The Gosain, however, had other things in hand besides the worship of Nikalsain. Abbott wondered why this holy man was continually pressing him for the gift of an old beaver hat which he could not then spare.

After a while he learned that a similar gift had been bestowed upon the suppliant by a gentleman at Rawal Pindi. But of what use could an English topee be to a ragged Hindu fakir?

At last the mystery revealed itself. But his god gave him so many more kicks than halfpence, that he retired crestfallen to Hasan Abdal, where with much zeal he renewed his worship of his impracticable divinity.

In one respect at least the Nikalsainis differed from the votaries of any other creed: their only persecutor was the divinity whom they adored. Flogjrinir arid imprisonment were all the reward which Nicholson es towed upon his intrusive worshippers.

But they took teir punishment like martyrs, and the more they suffered at his hands, the louder would they chant their hymns in honour of the mighty Nikalsain. In the middle of April, , while Nicholson was settling down to his work in the Sind-Sagar province, he received from Str Henry Lawrence a kindly letter, exhorting him. Don’t think it is necessary to say all you think to every one. The world would be a mass of tumult if we all gave candid opinions of each other.

I admire your sincerity as much as any man can do, but say thus much as a general warning. On the contrary, from what I saw in camp, I think you have done much towards conquering yourself and I hope to see the conquest completed. For the rest, I readily admit that my temper is a very excitable one, and wants a good deal of curbing.

A knowledge of the disease is said to be half the cure, and I trust the remaining half will not be long before it is effected V From his long and frequent rides on public business, John Nicholson would return at intervals to the pleasant 1 Kaye, Indian Officers. It was here that, shortly before the second Sikh war, James Abbott came from Hazara to visit his young friend, who had spent the previous Christmas with him in his capital of Haripur.

In those days no Company’s officer might claim his turn of furlough to Europe until he had served ten years in the East. There was no war on hand or in prospect, and the Punjab seemed as tranquil as Bengal or Madras. If he went home now, he would lose his appointment. But he fells Mrs. Nicholson that he can no longer restrain his inclination to return home, and that the kindness of Sir H.

Lawrence will no doubt find another post for him in the Punjab when he goes back to India. But what corner of the Punjab is not witness to your 1 Abbott, NatroHa. The two friends readily agreed to travel together as far as their roads lay in the same direction.

From Firozpur they were to go by boat down the Satlaj and the Indus to Karachi, and thence by steamer to Bombay. At the western capital they hoped to catch, writes Nicholson, 1 the second January steamer to Kosseir, where I purpose disembarking and marching across to the ruins of Thebes, the oldest and greatest of cities.

Thence I shall drop down the Nile by boat to Cairo and the Pyramids. Edwardes, too, knew how to hold his tongue on fit occasion, and to serve his friend by the silence that is often more eloquent than any words.

When our travellers halted at Sakkar on the right bank of the Indus, did John Nicholson find time to visit the still fresh grave-of his brother William Maxwell? To such questions no certain answer can now be given. One fact, however, stands out beyond dispute. From that time the friendship born of mutual esteem and admiration struck wider and deeper root. However cheaply they might rate the generalship of their old leader, they knew him at any rate for a stout soldier and a true-hearted gentleman, to converse with whom was at once a privilege and a pleasure.

The following letter, preserved by the Rev. Edward Maxwell, may be given here by way of preface to the strange story told by Kaye:— H. My dearest Mother, My hands are so numb and there is so much motion, owing to a heavy sea, that you must not be disappointed at getting a very short letter. I reached Constantinople on the 26th ultimo, and left on the 15th in the French steamer Lycurge. Why I remained tiiree weeks instead of only one as I had intended, I will tell you when we meet, and you will not disapprove of my motives.

On the morning of the 16th we ran aground in a snowstorm in the Dardanelles, and failing to get off again, the Porcupine took us up yesterday on her way to the Piraeus with dispatches. I shall not remain more than a week at Athens, and shall thence go di-ect to Trieste.

I hope to be in London by the middle of April. With love to all friends, and hoping to see you well ere the close of next month. Believe me, my dear mother, Your affec te son, J.

When the Hungarian revolt of had been crushed by the united arms of Austria and Russia, some of its leaders, notably Louis Kossuth, found an asylum on Turkish soil. The Turkish Government, backed by the whole force of British sympathy, refused to surrender the fugitive from Austrian vengeance. His daily rides were attended by a Turkish escort, and each day the direction of the ride was changed. Some of his friends and well-wishers in Constantinople had formed a plot for his deliverance and escape to the shelter of an American frigate.

A day was fixed, upon which Kossuth was to ride in a given direction towards the coast. But the plotters had reckoned without the ladies who had been let into their secret. One of the party, an American, revealed the plot in the strictest confidence to his wife. She in her turn imparted the joyful news to her dearest female friend under the most solemn pledge of secrecy.

The vows were soon broken with the best intentions. At last the plot became known to high Austrian officials, to whose demand for prompt interference the Porte had to lend a compliant ear. And so the plot fell through just as the rescuing party wore about to start on their chivalrous errand. In a yet more romantic adventure Nicholson was now to play a more prominent and successful part. She knew that the Austrians would show no mercy, if they c. Her husband had made good his escape from imminent capture; but no tidings from the outer world were allowed to enter her prison cell.

What else indeed could have been expected from the man who had once dared so much in the hope of rescuing the wife of his friend, George Lawrence? The Austrian officer took a few minutes to consider his answer to so bold a request.

He gave orders that the English officer should be allowed to speak with the lady alone for the space of five minutes. In another minute the door of her cell was opened, and John Nicholson stood alone before the fair captive. After a few words of explanation and apology, he proceeded to pull off one of his boots, ont of which he drew forth the hidden letter from General Guyon.

She had hardly said all that was in her. That Nicholson carried away with him some bright and fruitful memories of the week he spent at Athens, and of his subsequent journey home, the reader must take for granted in default of documentary proof. His quick eye and trained intelligence, aided by the knowledge gathered in past years, were sure to serve him well as he moved among scenes of living interest or old historical renown.

He had left Athens about the end of March, but so leisurely were his movements, by way of Vienna and Berlin, that April was nearly over before he found himself once more in London, bending over the mother from whom he had 1 Kaye. One evening the two friends dined at the Mansion House as guests of the Lord Mayor. At the same table sat the old Duke of Wellington and other distinguished officers.

It fell to Major Edwardes to respond to the toast of the Indian Army. Sir James felt a just pride in the handsome soldier-like nephew whom he had started on his Indian career, and in whose welfare he had always shown a fatherly interest. Needless 10 say that Nicholson met with a cordial welcome from Sir James and Lady Hogg, and was bidden to make their house his home so long as he cared to stay in London.

He may have attended a levee at St. James’s, and listened to a debate in the House of Commons. To Nicholson, however, who had been bred in a straiter and more ascetic school, this new experience was not so delightful. Quintin Hogg, 1 'Kaye. He can still show the presents which Nicholson gave him. A prophecy very fully borne out during the Crimean War.

Petersburg, where he saw the stately and ill-starred Emperor Nicholas putting 12, of his best troops through their field-manoeuvres, Nicholson brought away the impression that the Imperial Guard surpassed our own Guardsmen in mere physique , as much as these surpass our soldiers of the line. Who shall decide when two such critics disagree on a matter so trifling? For both men knew that mere bigness counts for little towards the making of an efficient soldier.

On such occasions he was often accompanied by one or both of his sisters; for Mrs. Maxwell had come over from Barnsley to stay a few weeks among her own people. It was a real union of two brave, loyal, pious hearts, in whose happiness Nicholson also was one day to find his own In the spring of he was staying with Mr. Maxwell at Barnsley. Their son Theodore—now Dr. Petersburg, which resulted in the release of Russian subjects, whom the man-stealing Turkmans of Khiva hnd caught and oold into slavery.

To which he replied that he would write to Uncle Charles to have them all killed. Uncle had taken them to London to see. Nicholson was certainly not one of those vain dreamers. At Berlin he had seen, handled, and brought away with him one of those new needle-muskets which, sixteen years later, were to make Prussia the paramount power in Germany.

And among the many attractions of the Hyde Park show, he turned with especial interest to a choice collection of firearms great and small, the best of which had been devised by foreign brains, and fashioned forth in foreign workshops. These were the kind of peacemakers miSTffy.

Economy was still the order of the day, as decreed by Hume and Cobden; our army was officered by scions of rich or noble families; and the absurd incoherences of our military system had yet to reap their natural harvest in the disasters that marked the long Crimean winter of Nicholson used to speak regretfully of the time he had wasted at school in learning Greek and Latin, instead of knowledge more clearly befitting the needs of a budding soldier.

This conviction, so dear to a large class of thinkers, his recent visit to Russia had done much to confirm; for one day at Barnsley he told his sister, Mrs. On March 20, , Edwardes had written to his friend a farewell letter from Southampton. May you have a sejour in Europe as pleasant as I know you will make it profitable. If possible, take our station [Jalandhar] on your way through the Punjab.

Perhaps there maybe some prejudice against married men in my exclusion. Perhaps he loved his profession better than any woman he had yet seen ; or perhaps his heart, for all its tenderness, was less inflammable than his temper 2. One of his last acts before leaving England was to have his likeness taken—in daguerreotype—by Mr.

Kilburn, the well-known photographer of Regent Street. It was not yet too late, as he afterwards told my kind informant, to 4 do the one thing which his mother had so often asked of him. Nichokon herself told the Bishop of Ossorv. And he felt moreover that he could serve his country better in the Punjab, than in any other part of India. From Cairo to Suez lay seventy miles of sandy boulder-strewn desert, over which he was jolted for many hours in a sort of van slung upon two high wheels, and drawn by four ill-broken horses or mules, who often gave the driver no end of trouble at first starting.

Once faiily started, they would tear along over eight or nine miles of ground hardly practicable for any other kind of vehicle than that which swayed, tossed, and bumped behind them.

On his way up the country from Bombay, Nicholson paid a brief but welcome visit to Herbert Edwardes, at Jalandhar, where he held the post of Deputy Commissioner. Here the new comer made further acquaintance with the tuture Lady Edwardes, an acquaintance which was soon to ripen into a sincere and loyal friendship.

But Henry Lawrence and his colleagues on the Lahore Board could ill spare the services of one of their ablest civil officers, and the Indian Government decreed that Major Edwardes should remain at his new post. Showing his friend the needle- musket which he had brought away from Berlin, Nicholson descanted lovingly upon its peculiar merits, and spoke strongly of the imperative need for its introduction into the British Army.

He spoke warmly against the conduct of our ambassador [at Naples], and was indignant that he would not receive him when desirous of making some political representations.

The name of Poerio, the noblest victim of Bourbon treachery, had become a household word with the countrymen of John Hampden. Nicholson himself on his way through Italy must have seen and heard many things which appealed strongly to his passionate hatred of all injustice, falsehood, and evil-doing.

Three years of just, wise, unflaggingly provident rule, aided by a series of favouring seasons, had raised the youngest of our Indian possessions to a level with Bombay or Bengal. Lawrence and his two colleagues presented to the Governor-General in the spring of Even on its financial side the new Raj had scored a. He had gone home as a simple captain of Bengal Sepoys ; and his return to India meant a return to regimental duty, unless it should please the Governor-General to require his services elsewhere.

Happily his old patron, Sir Henry Lawrence, still held his place of power, and he was not the man to forget a promise once made to any of his subalterns. I here was for the moment no befitting vacancy in the list of deputy commissioners. But the high-souled Reyncll 1 aylor, who had done much civilizing work in Bannu during the past three years, was bent upon talcing his well-earned furlough while his father was yet alive.

Sir Henry caught at such an opportunity for serving his favourite pupil; and early in May, , Nicholson found himself appointed Deputy Commissioner for Bannu in the room of Reynell Taylor. This strip of border country stretched miles southward from the Khatak Hills of Kohat, covering an aeca” of 6, square miles, or not much less than.

In the northern half of the district lay the smiling Bannu 1 Thorhurn, Bannu. The Marwats, for instance, who gave their name to the southern and less fertile part of the valley, were finer specimens, physically and mentally, of Afghan manhood than the mean and wizened Bannuchi clansmen of the north.

The leaders of these raids had been called upon by Taylor to pay up arrears of revenue for the lands they held in a Bannuchi village. Instead of paying, they had gone off to the hills, whence from time to time they and their clansmen swooped down in hundreds with fire and sword upon the peaceful villages in the plain. I rode out from Bannu with Reynell Taylor, who was making over charge to Nicholson.

Taylor was —and I am not given to exaggerated phrases— just a saint on earth. Duty and religion were stamped on all he did from hour to hour, and day to day; and any one who knew him intimately would certainly endorse this very strong sentiment.

Taylor was as keen to bring about reforms as Nicholson. Both worked so hard that neither could have any advantage unless he could add an hour to the twenty-four that were available. Taylor worked slowly and over-conscientiously, and would in five years have done less than Nicholson did in two, and their methods were absolutely different—one was all action, looking or fighting for quick results, the other over-elaborated.

The result soon justified all this, but one could not at the time foresee. With the first breath of autumn he set out from Bannu at the head of 1, mounted police, in quest of an enemy who deemed himself secure within his native hills.

Nicholson, however, had nothing to learn in the school of mountain warfare: and the troops that followed him were not the raw levies of But the purdah veil had been lifted, and they saw their country was accessible. Soon the headmen came into Bannu, submitted and asked for terms. The leader turned out to be a Waziri Malik, or headman of a village just inside the Gumatti Pass, which held lands inside and beyond the border.

Rather, you would only add an apostrophe and an s at the end of these words in order to make them possessive – to show that this is the men’s department, for example. While errors with irregular plurals, like 'men’ and 'women,’ happen fairly frequently, writers sometimes mix up regular plurals with possessives, too.

So you might see someone make a mistake like: I have two daughter’s. In this sentence, the writer has used the possessive form of the noun 'daughter,’ but it’s a mistake to do so, as there’s no ownership of anything in the sentence. We’re not talking about the daughter’s piano or the daughter’s cow or anything like that. What we really want in this sentence is the plural of the word 'daughter,’ because the writer has two of them.

So, we simply need to make the word 'daughter’ plural by adding an s at the end to form 'daughters. The mistake of making a noun possessive when it really should be plural happens a lot when people are talking about their last name. For example, someone working on their family holiday card might sign the card 'The Johnson’s. Instead, the writer really wants to show that the Johnson family has sent the card, and so he or she should simply make the last name Johnson plural by adding an s at the end.

The correct signature would be the plural form 'The Johnsons. Remember that we create the possessive form of nouns in a few different ways depending on whether the noun is singular or plural and whether a plural noun ends in s. To show joint possession that two or more people own something together , add an apostrophe and an s to the end of the last noun.

Before you start adding apostrophes and the letter s to words, stop and ask yourself whether you’re trying to show ownership or you’re trying to show that the noun you’re using is plural. Getting into the habit of asking that question will help you avoid getting your possessives mixed up with your plurals.

You’ve probably been to a party, or a gathering, or some sort of shindig where you met and got along with a whole lot of people, and you really felt like part of the group. But, have you ever been in a crowded place where, though you were technically a part of the group, you felt isolated, on your own, kind of singular? Keep that alone-in-a-crowd, singular idea in mind as we think about the topic of this lesson: collective nouns.

A collective noun is a noun that names a group of people or things. Examples of collective nouns are:. The most important thing to remember about collective nouns is that even though they name a bunch of people or things, grammatically speaking, they’re like that singular person in a crowd.

The rule to keep in mind is that collective nouns are singular, so they must be paired with singular verbs. This can be a bit counter-intuitive because we know that collective nouns refer to groups of people and things. Remember, though, that grammatically speaking, they are singular. Let’s take a look at some examples of subject-verb agreement involving collective nouns. You wouldn’t use a plural verb and say, My family are big.

You would instead use a singular verb and say, My family is big. Similarly, you would say, The local government has a lot of great programs for children. In this sentence, the collective noun is government , and we’ve correctly used a singular verb, has. If you ever find yourself getting a bit confused as to whether a certain verb is singular or not, try pairing it with a singular noun and then a plural noun to see which sounds right.

For example, you could say, One girl has a book bag , but you would say, Two girls have book bags. The singular verb is the one that goes with a singular noun, so we’ve confirmed here that has , which goes with the singular subject one girl , is in fact a singular verb. Here’s another example: The company hires a lot of diverse individuals. Spot the collective noun in this sentence. It’s company , and we’ve correctly paired it with the singular verb hires here.

Don’t be thrown off by the fact that hires ends with an s. Verbs that end in s are often singular, even though plural nouns usually end in s. Again, you can do a quick test to see what sounds right. You would say, One woman hires people , but Two women hire people. The first sentence has a singular noun and singular verb, and the second has a plural noun and plural verb.

Note that there is an exception to the rule that says that we must pair collective nouns with singular verbs. When you refer to the members of a collective group as separate individuals, use a plural verb in that sentence. Here’s an example: The team are putting on their helmets right now. In this case, we know that the team as a collective group doesn’t have one big head and one big helmet to put on.

By virtue of what’s being talked about in this sentence, we’re talking about the team members as separate individuals, so it makes sense here to use a plural verb with the collective noun team. There’s another situation in which it’s important to remember that collective nouns are treated as grammatically singular.

You may remember that a pronoun is a word that takes the place of or refers to a noun. An antecedent is the word that a pronoun takes the place of or refers to. For example, if I were to say that The teacher gathered her books , the pronoun in that sentence would be her , and the antecedent to which it refers would be teacher. Collective nouns, just like any other nouns, can be antecedents in sentences, and that means that they must be paired with pronouns. Here’s the rule to keep in mind for this situation: Collective nouns are singular, so when they are used as antecedents, they must be paired with singular pronouns.

Remember that a collective noun like family , even though it refers to more than one person, is grammatically singular. If family is used as an antecedent in a sentence, that means that it must be paired with a singular pronoun.

In this case, it might be tempting to say, My family loves to take their yearly vacation. Using the pronoun their here would be wrong, though, because their is a plural pronoun, and when collective nouns act as antecedents, we’ll need to match them with singular pronouns.

Therefore, the correct version of this sentence is My family loves to take its yearly vacation. Here’s another example: The jury took its lunch break.

Here, its is the correct pronoun to use to refer back to jury , because its is a singular pronoun. As a collective noun, the antecedent jury needs a singular pronoun matched up with it. Just like our earlier discussion about pairing collective nouns with verbs, there’s an exception to the rule about pairing collective nouns as antecedents with singular pronouns.

When you use a collective noun antecedent to refer to the members of a group as separate individuals, use a plural pronoun in that sentence. Note that in our earlier example sentence, The team are putting on their helmets right now , we correctly used a plural pronoun, their , to refer back to the collective noun team. Examples of collective nouns are government and team. You have to think about subject-verb agreement when you use collective nouns. Collective nouns are singular, so they must be paired with singular verbs.

There is an exception to that rule. A pronoun is a word that takes the place of or refers to a noun. Collective nouns are singular, so when they are used as antecedents, they must be paired with singular pronouns. There’s one more exception to remember.

A Stand This versatile collective noun is used in botany, forestry and agriculture. It denotes a group, grove or small forest of trees that belong to the same species. A Clump Often applied to plants, this botanical term denotes a cluster of tightly grouped stalks, plants or trees. It can be applied to reeds, moss, seaweed and a variety of plants. A Brood Used in zoology and farming, this collective noun describes a group of hatchlings or young animals born around the same time.

Farmer John is expecting a second brood this summer. A Swarm The word swarm implies a pesky bout of flying insects or other pests. A Pride Similar to a flock, a pride is a collective noun used to describe a group of lions or impressive birds, such as ostriches or peacocks.

A Bed This marine term is used to describe the habitat where a colony of mollusks thrives. It is often applied to clams, mussels, oysters and similar bivalves. A Band This collective noun is exceptionally versatile. It is used to describe a tribe, a set of people with common interests, a group of musicians or a flock of animals. These collective nouns are just a few of the odd English words that are used to describe groups of people, animals or plants. If there is a particular collective noun you like or one you find confusing, share it in the comments area.

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Like young Charles Metcalfe, he pined after the home and friends of his boyhood. At the same time I have so much reason to be thankful, that I do not grumble at my lot being cast in this country. He made me feel that he had probably in him what must make him a man of mark. I never met him again after those days.

His colonel offered him the adjutancy of his regiment. For some time he hesitated to accept the oifer. The military secretary held out to him hopes of a better appointment’ if he passed the next examination.

For the six months of his imprisonment he drew only the bare pay of his rank, and his claim to compen- sation for the loss of all his property was disallowed. And so, instead of putting by anything, he had been thrown into debt, he said, through no fault of his own. Half the time I was in Afghanistan I paid rupees a month, and upwards, for camel hire ; and that when my pay was rupees — great luxury!

Nicholson’s questions about the Afghans. You say nothing in your letter about the probability of a rebellion in Ireland, though the papers are full of it. The knowledge that you are in one of the most loyal parts of Protestant Ulster makes me feel less uneasy about you than I otherwise should. Young Stannus is in the 5th Light Cavalry, and not in any Dragoon regiment, as you mentioned in your letter.

The 5th Light Cavalry won fresh honour in all the hard fighting of the two great Sikh wars. At Gujarat Stannus was in com- mand of Lord Cough’s escort, when a troop of Sikh horsemen made a sudden dash at the point where Gough sat his horse, watching the progress of the fight. Stannus saw the danger, and saved his chief by a brilliant charge which nearly annihilated the whole band.

In his letter of January 18, , Nicholson expresses his disappointment at having received no letters by the last two mails. He feels sure that the letters were written, and lays the blame for their miscarriage upon the Bombay Post Office, ’ in which great carelessness and irregularity exist.

Letters supplied by Mr. He will be much vexed that he was not pre- sent at it. Nicholson tells his mother that he is going to write that day to his uncle Charles Hogg, who is in Cal- cutta, ’ and ask him, if possible, to get the amount without delay remitted to you.

Uncle James, who was some years ago registrar himself, can tell you that great delay fre- quently occurs in the adjustment of deceased officers’ estates. I trust the change of air at Stan- more and careful nursing may yet prove of use to him. The discipline and smartness of a native regiment depended mainly on its adjutant ; and Nicholson had all the zeal and energy which enabled him to turn his professional knowledge and his soldierly instincts to the best account.

His new duties seem to have delayed the progress of those linguistic studies which he had lately resumed. At any rate it was not till November, , that he passed the examination which qualified him for a post on the General Staff. Nicholson rejoiced to hear that the heroic George Broad- foot had replaced an older and weaker man as political agent for the north-west frontier, at a critical moment in our relations with the Punjab.

He rejoiced still more to learn a few months later that his sister Mary was about to be married to the Rev. Edward Maxwell. The marriage took place in February , about which time Mr. Maxwell exchanged his curacy at Leeds for the spiritual charge of a poor and populous district, owning neither church, school, nor parsonage, in the busy manu- facturing town of Barnsley.

The likelihood of a collision with our turbulent Sikh neighbours had of late been growing into a certainty. The ill-will of his proud Khalsa soldiery towards a Power which had curbed their ambition, underrated their military worth, and used their country as a highway into Afghanistan, had since been inflamed by the conquest of Sind and the gathering of British troops along their frontiers. For some months past Sir Henry Hardinge had been carefully increasing the strength of all his garrisons from Firozpur to Meerut, while Napier’s army seemed ready at any moment to cross the southern frontier of the Punjab.

On November 17, , the Lahore Council declared war. On December 11 a large Sikh army crossed the Satlaj. On the afternoon of the 1 8th Gough’s tired and thirsty soldiers — they had been marching twenty-five miles a day for a week past — fought and won at Mudki the first of those battles which taught us to respect the prowess of our Sikh foes, and to admire the sturdy courage with which they fought their guns.

Three days later began, at Firozshah, that long, changeful, and bloody fight, on which for many hours the fate of India may be said to have hung. At this momentous battle, which lasted far into the next day, Nicholson was present in his new character of com- missariat officer. This appointment, which in India was always held by an army officer, he had just obtained through his uncle’s good friend, Colonel Stuart, then mili- tary secretary to the Indian Government.

Three days later Broadfoot himself died the soldier’s death at Firozshah. Of all our losses on that hard- won field, this was accounted by all who knew him, from the Governor- General downwards, the heaviest and most untimely. Nicholson, for one, could never speak too warmly in his praise. Hardinge, who had led the centre of Gough’s line, sent orders to his chief secretary, Mr.

Frederick Currie, for the destruction of all State papers left in his charge at Mudki, in the event of final disaster to our arms. Even in England the first news of actual victory was received by some of our leading statesmen with more of consternation than rejoicing.

Peel himself was among the croakers at a council-meeting in which the old Duke of Wellington had been taking a somewhat listless part. At Peel’s reference to our Pyrrhic victory and the perils which beset our Indian empire, the old warrior flashed out : ’ Make it a victory ; fire a salute, and ring the bells.

Gough has lost a good many men ; but what of that? You must lose officers and men if you have to fight a great battle. There was plenty of work for the commissariat, to which Nicholson contributed his full share.

Meanwhile the anxious Gover- nor-General had been looking towards a secluded valley in the mountains of Nipal for a meet successor to George Broadfoot. On that day the Satlaj was choked with the corpses and red with the blood of Sikhs drowned or slaughtered in their vain attempts to reach the opposite bank.

Our loss since the com- mencement of the war has — though heavy — been nothing in comparison with theirs. It was not Hardinge’s policy to annex the whole of Ranjit Singh’s dominions. The arguments against such a course at such a moment were in truth exceedingly strong. So he contented himself with annexing the Jalandhar province and the hill- tracts adjacent, and with selling Kashmir to Gulab Singh, the wily Rajah of Jammu, for the million sterling which the Lahore treasury could not pay towards the cost of the war.

A strong British garrison remained for the present at Lahore, in compliance with the wishes of the Sikh ministers. John Lawrence, Henry’s civilian brother, was called by Hardinge, in return for his helpful services at Delhi, to fill the post of commissioner for Jalandhar. About this time the new ruler of Kashmir was asking for the loan of a few English officers competent to drill his wild Dogra troops after the best European methods.

The two officers whom Hardinge selected for that purpose were Captain Broome of the Bengal Artillery, and Lieu- tenant Nicholson, of the commissariat. Broome’s memory lives still in his great, though unfinished, work on the history of the Bengal Army. Both men owed their appointments to Henry Lawrence, who was himself a captain of artillery, proud of the part which that arm had played in our Indian wars ; and who knew that Nicholson had been an adjutant before he became an assistant-commissary.

Lawrence and Nicholson had first known each other at Kabul in September, , when George Lawrence had introduced his young friend and fellow-captive to his brother Henry. The acquaintance soon ripened into mutual esteem. When the two met again, three years later, on the banks of the Satlaj, their mutual liking grew with closer inter- course. Lawrence’s place in the Governor- General’s counsels enabled him to hold out to younger men of approved worth or manifest promise that helping hand, for want of which they might else have failed to rise above the level of ordinary achievement.

He could see that Nicholson was fitted for higher things than commissariat duties. One day in March John Nicholson was summoned to an interview with Lord Hardinge, who in the kindliest possible terms offered him the post for which Lawrence had recommended him.

As things happened, however, there was little need for such a precaution while his good friend Henry Lawrence was at hand to furnish him with a second string. I have no duties of any kind to perform, ’ George Lawrence had been sent by Akbar to Jalalabad with certain overtures for General Pollock. When the mission proved a failure, his brother Henry offered to take his place at Kabul, as he had but one child, while George had four. The offer was of course declined. Lawrence, Reminiscences. The Maharajah talks of going to Kashmir next month, and taking me with him.

I look forward with great pleasure to a trip to this beautiful valley albeit in such company , believed by natives to have been the earthly Paradise. Lawrence ; Lawrence, Essays. Towards the end of July, , Gulab Singh, escorted by a body of his own troops, and attended by his two English oflQcers, began his march across the mountains which divided Jammu from his new kingdom of Kashmir. On August 12 he entered his future capital of Srinagar, past which the river Jhilam winds through ’ the loveliest valley in the world.

This valley was soon to become the scene of an armed insurrection against the new rule. We had great diflSculty in effecting our escape, which we did just in time to avoid capture. Meanwhile Gulab Singh’s troops in the Kashmir valley had been heavily defeated by the insurgent forces. The sur- vivors threw themselves into the fort of Hari Parbat, where they might hold out until relief should come.

Both of them saw the need for prompt and vigorous action, Wheeler’s brigade in Jalandhar was ordered off at once to protect Jammu ; while Henry Lawrence, hurrying- back to Lahore, marched towards the scene of dang-er at the head of some ten thousand of those very Sikhs who had fought against us at Firozshah and Subraon. He had reason to believe that the rebellious governor. Shaikh Imam-ud-din, had been egged on by the treacherous vizier, Lai Singh ; and John Lawrence, who took his brother’s place at Lahore, was instructed to seize and imprison the traitor, in the event of harm befalling the British Resident.

But he knew also that in such crises boldness and promptitude were the best cards for an Englishman to play. He had acquainted Lai Singh’s vakil, or agent, with the instructions given to his brother John. He trusted something, of course, to the magic of his own ’ Lawrence, Essays. Fortune on this occasion stood by the brave.

By the end of October Imam-ud-din had ridden across the moun- tains and yielded himself up to the safe keeping of Captain Edwardes, who on November i conducted his penitent captive to the tent of Colonel Lawrence, at the foot of the pass leading into the Kashmir valley.

Lower down the Thana valley were encamped, in pictur- esque confusion and motley garb, the combined forces of Jammu and Lahore. It was here, no doubt, that Nicholson and Hodson first came together ; and during the next fort- night they must have learned to know each other as worthy rivals in the school of their common friend and master, Henry Lawrence.

While Herbert Edwardes, at Lawrence’s request, was escorting Imam-ud-din down to Lahore, Gulab Singh entered, under Lawrence’s careful leadership, into peaceful and secure possession of his new kingdom. Hodson de- scribes the new sovereign as ’ a fine, tall, portly man, with a splendid expressive face and most gentlemanly, pleasing manner, and fine-toned voice On November 16, as we learn from Nicholson’s letter to his brother Charles, Lawrence, Broome, and the others turned their backs upon the far-famed vaUey, leaving Nicholson there ’ quite alone.

John himself on November 23 was just recovering from a severe attack of fever and ague, which had laid him up for a fortnight past. My fingers are so cold that I can scarcely hold the pen ; and glazed windows are unknown here. Here I have not even the sight of a white face to cheer me. May you be never in a like predicament! The ’ something better ’ which Lord Hardinge had virtually promised Nicholson on the eve of his mission to Kashmir was already coming into view.

Lord Hardinge was not slow to grant the formal sanction for which Law- rence applied ; and a few weeks later Lieutenant John Nicholson was duly gazetted an assistant to the Resident at Lahore. For him there was no more question now of falling back on the commissariat, or of going somewhere out of India on sick leave. While Nicholson was yet wavering between hope and fear for his immediate future, a timely Nemesis overtook the real authors of the rising in Kashmir.

Lai Singh’s guilt was proved beyond question before a large audience of Sikh sirdars. By Lord Hardinge 's order the Queen-Regent’s worthless paramour was deposed from his office, and sent off a State prisoner to the Fort of Agra. His crafty mistress likewise ceased to have any voice in public affairs. The Resident’s powers were to ’ extend over every department, and to any extent.

The men designed for that mission were all picked men, taken from the Company’s service ; men who were destined to leave some mark on the pages of Anglo-Indian history.

Well might Lawrence, writing afterwards to Kaye, account himself fortunate in such assistants as George Lawrence, Edwardes, Nicholson, Reynell Taylor, Harry Lumsden, Lake, James Abbott, Cocks, Hodson, Pollock, Bowring, ’ all of whom,’ he adds, ’ were my friends, and almost every one of whom was introduced into the Punjab through me.

Each was a good man ; the most were excellent officers. In short, as Henry himself declared, ’ in various ways John Lawrence was most useful, and gave me always such help as only a brother could. During this journey, which extended over two months, he reported to his chief on the state of the country he passed through. It was a meeting to which he had been looking forward for months past.

But he was hardly prepared for the change which eight years had wrought in the outward form and features of both. Our joy at meeting you will under- stand, without my attempting to describe it to you. From daily intercourse with his hard- working chief he learned some fruitful lessons of unsparing labour and self-denying zeal for the welfare of a people who had never yet tasted the blessings of a just, merciful, well-ordered rule.

THE PUNJAB IN 69 It was Lawrence’s custom to send out some of his officers ’ on visits of a week or a month to different quarters,’ in order, as he said, that ’ we may help the executive as well as protect the people. So well did he discharge his errand, that, by the end of June, , Lawrence entrusted him with full political control over the Sind-vSagar Doab, the broad tract of land between the Jhilam and the Indus.

Nicholson was instructed to cultivate the acquaintance of the two nazims or governors, as also of their deputies, and ’ all respectable kardars. I, insist upon insubordination and plunder being promptly punished ; and bring to my notice any particular instances of good conduct. Abbott had summoned certain chiefs of Simalkhand to answer before him for ’ the most dastardly and delibe- rate murder of women and children at Bakkar. Turning for help to his nearest colleague, Abbott begged Nicholson to march his men up to Hazru, on the Rawal Pindi border, whence they could act in timely concert with his own troops.

Nicholson moved his troops to a point still more advanced than Hazru. On the night of August 2 three different columns marched from three different points upon the rebel stronghold at Simalkhand. Nicholson s force was the first to approach that place on the following morning.

But by that time the enemy had slipped away, and Nichol- son took possession of an empty fort. A little later in the same month Lawrence found himself compelled to remove the little Maharajah Dulip Singh from all intercourse with his pernicious mother, whose arts had taught him publicly to insult the worthy president of his council, the new-made Rajah Tej Singh.

That Hindu Messalina was promptly escorted, with Lord Hardinge s sanction, to the guarded privacy of a fort at Shaikopura, a quiet place about twenty-five miles from Lahore. That business ended, and matters looking peaceful throughout the country, Henry Lawrence felt himself free to recruit his shattered health and rest his tired brain among the pines and deodars of Simla ; while his brother John once more took his place at the Sikh capital.

In the latter part of October Henry was back again for a few weeks at the Residency, winding up his official affairs, taking his last walk with John, exchanging farewells with Sikh and Muhammadan friends, and preparing for THE PUNJAB IN 71 his journey home on sick leave, in company with his attached friend and Hke- minded leader, Lord Hardinge, who in the following January made over his viceregal charge to the young and promising Earl of Dalhousie.

Meanwhile, John Nicholson was carrying out his chief’s instructions with a zeal, energy, and resourceful boldness, which none of his compeers could have surpassed. The country he had been sent to govern was mostly wild, rugged, and thinly peopled by men of diverse races, cus- toms, and callings, from the warUke Ghakkars, Pathans, and Rajputs, to the cattle-lifting Gujars and the peaceful Jats, who tilled the terraced slopes of the Rawal Pindi highlands.

From the banks of the Jhilam to Attock on the Indus spread a rough sea of fort-crowned hills, with only a few strips of level plain between them. Under Sikh rule violence and plunder were the usual methods of enforcing payment of arrears due to the Sikh soldiery, or of taxes required by the State.

Nicholson set his face sternly against all kinds of lawlessness and wrong- doing. The Sikh sirdars and oflScers, with whom he often rode out hawking in the cold weather, soon discovered the fearless strength of purpose that lay beneath the quiet courtesy of his manner. The village people found in him an upright judge and a powerful protector in time of need.

The troops refrained from their usual excesses at the mere bidding of one who seemed to them more like a demi- god than a man.

At Hasan Abdal, on his way to Peshawar, he gave audience to a number of notorious freebooters — ’ no petty robbers, but heads of clans, who kept in their pay large bodies of Sikhs, Afghans, and Hindustanis,’ and levied blackmail from the Margalla Pass to the Attock, ’ acknow- ledging no authority unless supported by regular troops.

At Peshawar he was beset by crowds of noisy supplicants, ’ many of them carrying fire on their heads, as illustrative of their extreme misery and grief,’ All alike complained of ’ the unchecked rapacity and violence of the soldiery, of the grinding extortion practised by the kardars, and the heavy and incessant fines levied upon them on all pretexts and occasions.

Then there were several heads of clans and villages, who proved so backward in paying their revenue, that George Lawrence had to ’ make an example of them for the intimidation of the rest. It seemed as if Lord Hardinge’s efforts to breathe new life into the death -stricken body of Sikh rule were already reaping their full reward. So bright and peaceful was the prospect even in the long-troubled Peshawar valley, at the end of October, that the chief mullah, or Muhammadan high-priest of Peshawar, offered up a public thanksgiving ; and Major George Lawrence felt himself justified in paying a farewell visit to his brother Henry at Lahore.

When George Lawrence returned to Peshawar at the end of January, , so profound, he wrote, ’ was the tran- quillity prevailing there and throughout the entire Punjab, and so complete the absence of all causes of alarm, that I was accompanied by my wife and children.

Sir Frederick Currie had joined his appointment as Resident during my brother Henry’s absence in England ; and my brother John.

Lawrence ; Life of Sir H. Lord Hardinge had just predicted that the peace of India would remain unbroken for the next seven years. Not a shot is fired from the Indus to Cape Comorin against our will. On the 20th of that month two of our politicals, Ag-nevv and Anderson, were cruelly murdered on a peaceful and friendly mission to Mulraj, the Governor of Multan.

They had been sent from Lahore to establish a new diwan, or governor, in the room of Mulraj, who had lately obtained the Resident’s permission to resign his post.

Mulraj him- self was not slow in marking his approval of the crime he had made no effort to avert. He proclaimed a holy war against the English, brought his own family and treasures into the citadel, and set about strengthening the defences of a stronghold which had thrice defied Ranjit Singh himself. Agnew’s urgent note to Edwardes, written the day before his own death, met with a response as prompt and bold as it was fruitless for the purpose of saving two valuable lives.

The keen-witted subaltern of Bengal Fusiliers at once realized the need of quelling a local outbreak before it blossomed into a national revolt. In a few weeks, with help from Colonel Cortlandt and the loyal Khan of Bhawal- pur, Edwardes got together an army which, by July 2, had thrice routed the troops of Mulraj, and sent their leader flying back to the safe shelter of his own capital. Had men like John Lawrence and Herbert Edwardes had their own way, the army which General W’hish arrayed before Multan in September would have come into touch with Edwardes early in June.

To such men the hazards of a hot-weather campaign seemed as nothing in comparison with the dangers of delay and the moral effects of prompt, bold, and resolute action against an Indian foe. There was no one at hand to reap the fruits of their labours ; and in September it was too late to make up for past shortcomings, when the whole country from Multan to Peshawar was bursting into revolt.

And Lord Dalhousie was too late when he granted Currie in July the free hand which Currie had asked for at the end of April. In fact some echoes of the Multan explosion were felt at Peshawar as early as the month of May. By that time Lumsden had returned on special duty to Lahore, and John Nicholson had taken his place as chief assistant to George Lawrence. Nicholson was dispatched with a body of Sikhs to ’ seize the murderers and punish the headmen.

Emissaries from Mulraj were already tampering with the Sikh troops in the Peshawar valley, and Sikh fanatics in the city were heard exhorting the soldiery to rise against the Farangi and wipe out the disgrace of Subraon ; which, adds Lawrence, ’ I well knew they were burning to do. On June 27 he writes to James Abbott’, whose forecasts of coming- danger had found no favour at Lahore : My dear Abbott, I this morning received yours of the 24th, returning Taylor’s letters.

Lawrence and I agree entirely with all you write ; indeed, no one who even slightly knows you will suspect that your motive in addressing the Resident as you did were other than unselfish and disinterested.

I enclose a letter this moment re- ceived from Edwardes. May his shadow never be less! It is getting late, so good-bye, with kind regards. Yours very sincerely, J. It is impossible ever to fathom the Rosy One’s real intentions, but I fear he can, with some degree of plausibility, dechne your mediation with the Kurna chiefs, on the ground of their long recusancy. I am sorry to hear so bad an account of Boodh Singh’s corps, but it was scarcely to be expected that, amidst the general rottenness, it would remain sound.

We are without further news from Multan or Lahore, save that the Resident talks of the success of his ’ Muhammadan combinations ’ and of the way in which he ’ hum- bugged the Khalsa. I imagine he will make a favourable report of E. I will get Lawrence to send you a letter he had from him yesterday, an amusing but disgusting production.

I return Inglis’s letter with thanks. With kind regards to you and your circle. Raj-mond Abbott. This man had just returned from a similar errand to our ancient foe Dost Muhammad, who declined his offers and refused to see him again.

One of the nazims, whose acquaintance Nicholson had been advised to cultivate, was the Sikh sirdar, Chatar Singh, Governor of Hazara, and lord of large estates in Rawal Pindi. This old chieftain’s intrigues among the Sikh troops quartered in Hazara had of late been giving James Abbott food for much anxious pondering. By August 9 Lawrence learned that a faithful colonel of Sikh artillery had been cut down beside his guns by some of Chatar Singh’s followers, and that Chatar Singh himself was calling upon the Sikhs in Hazara and the neighbouring districts to rise and join him in a march upon Lahore.

The wily old traitor had at length thrown off the mask which Abbott alone among our politicals had learned to see through. For some months before the murder of Colonel Canora, Captain Abbott had been quietly watching the movements of Chatar Singh, and searching out the evi- dence of his complicity in a widespread plot for restoring the queen-mother to her palace at Lahore and expelling the English from the Punjab.

Meanwhile he had been careful ’ Sir G. Lawrence, Forty-three Years in India. The outbreak at Haripur gave him the open challenge for which he had long been waiting. Herbert or Bowie must go in your place,’ Nicholson insisted upon going himself : ’ Never mind the fever ; I wall start to-night. During that night he covered the fifty miles that lay between Peshawar and the rocky ramparts of the Indus opposite Attock. On the morning of the loth he crossed the river and rode up to the gate of the fortress just in time to prevent the plotters inside from closing it against him.

At that moment, as he wrote to his chief, ’ I had not more than thirty men with me,’ so fast was the pace at which he had travelled. His bold words and haughty bearing won the bulk of the garrison over to his side. When the Sikh guard at one of the gates showed signs of resistance, he stalked among them like an avenging deity, dared them to lift a finger against him, and forced them to arrest their own leaders. Ere long the mutinous Sikh company was marching sullenly out of the fort.

On the following day he left the fortress in charge of a loyal commandant, and rode away with his Pathan troopers and forty footmen towards Hasan Abdal, on the road to Rawal Pindi, where ’ Punjab Blue Book ; Kaye. Writing to Currie on August 12, Nicholson relates how he ’ paraded the party, and dismissed and confined the ringleaders on the spot. The remainder begged to be forgiven ; and having some reason to believe them sincere, and wishing to show that I was not entirely without con- fidence in Sikhs, I granted it.

I shall of course keep a sharp lookout on them in future. Delay will have a bad effect in every way, and may afford the mutineers an opportunity of tampering with the Peshawar force.

Currie agreed on the whole with the views expressed by his three lieutenants. But Lord Gough and the Governor- General ruled otherwise, pleading the dis- turbed condition of the whole kingdom as sufficient reason for doing nothing in one particular direction. It seemed as if they were waiting only for a decent excuse to set aside the Treaty of Bhairowal and reduce the Punjab to a British province. He himself rode thither the next morning — August 13 — to survey the ground, which, though of no great strength, he found entirely suitable for his purpose.

The regiment did not attempt to cross to-day, but I hear they purpose doing so to-morrow. I am from ten to fourteen hours every day in the saddle, though not very strong, and though the heat is great. I shall employ all fair means to induce it to return to its duty, but will forcibly resist its advance beyond Jani-ka Sang, as I consider it of great consequence that it should not be allowed to form a junction with the Hazara force.

Before daybreak of the 15th he drew up his little force of matchlock-men behind some jungle in front of the Sikh position at Jani-ka Sang. Summon- ing before him the colonel of the offending regiment, Nicholson bade him tell his officers and men that the terms already offered were still open to them.

If these were accepted within half an hour, he would rejoice ; otherwise he would be compelled to treat them as open mutineers. But Nicholson knew how to dare greatly for great and noble ends. His name was a word of fear throughout the district, and the malcontent soldiery believed that whatever he threatened he would certainly, if need Avere, perform. Fortune, as usual, smiled upon the brave.

After a warm debate the counsels of peace and prudence gained the mastery. In the nick of time the Sikh colonel ’ came out, begged pardon on his own behalf and that of his men, and declared their willingness to march whithersoever I directed them, I accordingly saw them en route to Rawal Pindi before leaving the ground.

How nearly his success had hovered on the brink of failure, we learn from his letter of the next day ; ’ a force from Haripur having actually been told off to assist’ the advance of their fellow-mutineers. At this time Sir F, Currie at Lahore, still blind to the true meaning- of Chatar Singh’s revolt, had requested Nicholson to act as peace-maker between that worthy and Captain Abbott.

To his thinking the wily Sikh sirdar, Dulip Singh’s destined father-in-law, was a harmless old gentleman of infirm health, who had been frightened into evil courses by Abbott’s seeming discourtesy and uncon- cealed distrust.

Even in his letter of August i6, Nicholson states the case against Chatar Singh’s conduct after the outbreak as strongly as Abbott himself had done. While Sir F. About August 20 it was known that he had raised the standard of rebellion, ’ devoting his head to the Gods and his arms to the Khalsa. Had these two bold, eager, and resourceful comrades been free to take their own line, the whole Sikh brigade in Hazara would have had to choose between timely sub- mission and death by famine or the sword.

While these were under debate in Nicholson’s camp on August 26, Abbott s telescope ere long revealed to him the real purport of the sirdar’s last move. The Sikh camp was packed ready for marching, while a body of horse were galloping towards the very point of vantage from which, during the parley, Abbott had reluctantly agreed to fall back.

His men, worn down with two long marches under a fierce August sun, and most of them weak from the day-long fasts observed by all good Musalmans during the month of Ramzan, had little heart left for attacking regular troops covered by the fire from several guns. After some feeble skirmishing in the dark, Abbott withdrew his men about midnight from the ravine they had been holding, and, joining forces with Nicholson, retired next morning to Hasan AbdaP, It was arranged between the two friends that Abbott should return to Hazara, while Nicholson took care for the safeguarding of Attock.

Amidst the toils, worries, and distractions of the past fortnight, Nicholson had managed to pay some hurried visits to the great river-stronghold which had become his especial charge.

Day after day during the fast of Ramzan, when no Muhammadan may taste even a drop of water between sunrise and sunset, his improvised troops had made long and rapid marches to and fro, under a leader who never spared himself, who feared no mortal foe, and seemed to have more than mortal powers of endurance. Do what such a leader might, however, he knew himself powerless to cope with trained battahons in the open field.

For a moment he thought of throwing himself into Attock and there awaiting the course of events. But on second ’ Punjab Blue Book. Withdrawing his own men betimes from that place, Nicholson left them to watch the enemy’s move- ments, while he himself with a few horsemen rode off to Attock, to make all safe there against foes without and possible treachery within. On the last day of August he writes to George Lawrence asking for more men from Peshawar. I have not yet turned out the Singhs [Sikhs], but don’t really see how I can avoid it ; the risk of keeping them is so very great.

I have mentioned that Abbas Khan has not half j’ee [spirit], or intelligence, enough for a situation of trust. Cannot Bowie or Herbert be spared? I have not let in Dunraj’s men; he seems to have some doubts of them himself’. By that time he had sent off to Attock, as commander of the g-arrison, Muhammad Usman Khan, the Afghan chief who had befriended us at Kabul in the dark days of On September i, after giving Herbert his last instructions, and sending off to Peshawar his latest news of the enemy’s movements, Nicholson sped away from Attock to rejoin his levies at Gondul and try his best, in conjunction with Abbott, to thwart or hinder the designs of Chatar Singh.

His levies in the field amounted to horse and foot. No increase of their numbers, he wrote to Currie, would enable him ’ to oppose successfully in the field four regular regiments of infantry and eight guns, besides irregulars. Attock therefore was safe from any serious danger, so long as Abbott’s levies could prevent the junction of the Pakli brigade with a Sikh force encamped about Hasan Abdal. While a son of the rebel Sikh sirdar was gathering recruits for the force he commanded at Rawal Pindi, the arch traitor himself was marching to and fro between Hasan Abdal and Hazara, in order to effect his junction with the Pakli brigade, which Abbott s vigilance still held in check.

On September 2′] Nicholson tells his mother that he is leading- ’ a very guerilla sort of life, with seven hundred horse and foot hastily raised among the people of the country, Chatar Singh and his son, who are in rebellion, have eight regular reg-iments and sixteen guns, so that I am unable to meet them openly in the field, I received a slight hurt from a stone in a skirmish in the hills a week or two ago.

Held by a dozen bold marksmen, the Margalla Tower might greatly hinder the march of a whole brigade, such as Utar Singh was. Scaling- ladders he had none, for want of skilled workmen in his little force ; nor was there a man among- them, says Abbott, ’ who could handle a powder-bag. He himself led the way, closely followed by a dozen of his trusty chiefs and maliks [heads of villages]. His tall figure and European dress made him a mark for many bullets, but he reached the tower unscathed by a fire which had slain several of his bravest followers.

They had simply stayed behind as soon as their commander turned his back upon them and his face towards the foe ; for they argued, says Abbott, ’ that he being ahead could not possibly see who mis- behaved.

He was not yet, however, at the end of his resources. The little party who had struggled up to the foot of the tower ’ found some respite from the fire of the garrison, who were too timid to expose themselves by leaning over the parapet far enough to hit them. But the men above him were now hurling large stones upon their assailants, and one of these struck Nicholson badly in the face.

To his good friend James Abbott, it seemed marvellous that Nicholson returned alive. He left behind him a little son, upon whom Nicholson, says Abbott, 'lavished much care and attention. Nicholson found his levies near the spot where they had left him so shamelessly in the lurch. Utar Singh now marched on unmolested to Hasan Abdal.

A day or two later he and his father were speeding back to Hazara, to bring off the Sikh troops still pent up at PakH and ’ Abbott’s Narrative. The Margalla or Cut-throat Pass was so called because it cut through the western end of the rocky ridge which runs eastward to the Jhilarn.

DiviniiiLi- their purpose, Nicholson hoped to defeat it by outmarching- the enemy, and seizing- the pass which commanded the fertile valley of Damtur. This time at least his levies did not fail him.

 
 

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