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WikiPathways is a database of biological pathways maintained by and for the scientific community. SARS coronavirus and innate immunity Homo sapiens. WikiPathways From WikiPathways. Jump to: navigation , search.

Welcome to WikiPathways WikiPathways is a database of biological pathways maintained by and for the scientific community. Read about our year journey so far and official exit from beta or our NAR paper.

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Browse Browse by species and category. You can search by: Pathway name Apoptosis Gene or protein name p53 Any page content cancer. Download Multiple formats and methods. Growth New pathways added each month. Learn Play with the editor tools. Request Queue figures for conversion. August Release : edits by 6 contributors and 11 new pathways.

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By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. To browse Academia. If insigntsquared are what we eat, what might it mean if what we eat is not necessarily under our control? My research—motivated insightxquared the release of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans—presents a qualitative analysis of 33 pictorial representations of food-based dietary guidelines FBDGs from around the world.

FBDGs provide food intake recommendations to achieve adequate nutrition levels. These documents are typically summarized as single images that represent pages of dietary guidance. Through analyses rooted in symbolic anthropology and political economy, I argue FBDG images convey more than just recommendations as to what and how to eat: they reflect socioeconomic and political realities, as well as what it means to be a healthy смотрите подробнее. Furthermore, I claim the very selection and inclusion of specific imagery suggest a problematic negotiation of power among branches of government, industry, and the marketplace in the construction of culture.

Conference paper co-authored by Brianne Pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki and Jeffrey H. Cohen The Department of Health and Human Services publishes an updated set of dietary guidelines geared toward the American public every five years.

Despite written recommendations unique to pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki populations,” comparably little seems to account for our nation’s multicultural composition. Such discrepancies become especially manifested in pictorial representations of food-based dietary guidelines FBDGswhich essentially distill recommendations into a uniform image whether it be a pyramid, set of steps, or most recently a plate in the American context.

Comparing the aforementioned guidelines with those around zpplication world allows for worldwide variation in diet to be explored, as well as expected caloric intake compared to energy expenditure of world cultures. Through a literature review and survey of 24 contemporary pictorial representations of FBDGs, and a quantitative analysis of caloric data of select populations, we emphasize the political economy of biological and cultural outcomes around diet i.

We suggest efficacy is contingent on pathwahs ability to make guidelines relevant to cultural groups and pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki of intragroup diversity. Further, we stress the importance of uusa and sustainably pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki access issues and systemic inequalities both on a national and global scale.

FBDGs are conceptual frameworks that convey key pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki messages which recommend what kinds and amounts foods individuals should consume or avoid.

In addition, FBDGs are typically accompanied by a graphic, or set of graphics, which symbolically represent their guidelines. This study reviews 21 pictorial representations of FBDGs e.

Quantitative data elicited for this study complement a qualitative analysis grounded in a range of social science theories that include the study of symbols and ritual, models of and for cultural systems, cultural applicaation and symbolic violence, and political economy. Ultimately, this analysis argues that FBDG images convey to consumers more than just nutrition and recommendations as to what and how to eat: they reflect and create socioeconomic and political realities, as well as what it means to be a healthy citizen.

Furthermore, these analyses reveal problematic negotiations of power in jobss construction of culture. Gagic Snjezana. Melissa Fuster. ObjectiveDietary guidelines are important education and policy tools to address local nutrition concerns. The current paper presents a comparative analysis should i use usajobs resume builders in my nutrition messages from three Insigghtsquared Caribbean countries Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic to explore how these dietary guidelines address common public health nutrition concerns, contextualized in different changing food environments and food culture similarities.

DesignQualitative, comparative analysis of current dietary guideline documents and key recommendations. Only the Cuban dietary guidelines included diet-based key recommendations. Of the ten food-based key recommendations, only four themes overlapped across the three dietary guidelines the encouragement of fruits and vegetables, addressing protein sources and fat. Other overlaps were found between dietary guideline pairs, except betwee Mdruiz Lopez.

Monique Raats. Ruchika dt. Eating a balanced diet is vital for good health and wellbeing. Food provides our bodies pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki the energy, protein, essential fats, vitamins and minerals to live, grow and function properly. We need a wide variety of different foods to provide the right amounts of nutrients for good health.

Enjoyment of a healthy diet can also be one of the great cultural pleasures of life. Ingrid Keller. The Pacific Tracker PacTrac is a computer program designed to pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki food intakes of individuals from the Pacific Region.

PacTrac was made available for public use through the Hawaii Foods website hawaiifoods. In addition, the PacTrac2 includes a physical activity analysis tool which quantifies minutes of physical activities and their intensities based on energy estimates from the compendium of physical activity and research on children.

An Expert System ES – a computerised decision tree to guide behaviour change – was developed using information on self-efficacy and stage of Debbi Marais. Simone Caivano. Matthieu MaillotNicole Darmon. Melanie LeenenBart Penders. Abolghassem Djazayery.

Em Inge Huybrechts. Medha TalpadeTonneka Caddell. Maria Bibiloni. Abdulrahman O Musaiger. Harry Aiking. Emilia Nweze. Jeppe Нажмите для продолжения. Adamasco Cupisti.

Ana Carolina Fernandes. Maria Almeida. Gabriela Steier. Mark Dignan. Herman Van Oyen. Massimo Iannetta. Mike Gibney. Kevin Vaccarello. John Kearney. Neha Rathi. Amanda Beal. Stacy Bevan. Sharine Pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki.

Wan Eton. Montserrat Gascon. Nadia Slimani. Rajesh Jeewon. Rutja Phuphaibul. Florence Ojiugo Uruakpa. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Patwhays the email address applicstion signed up with and we’ll email day vancouver island’s wilderness resorts a reset link. Need an pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki Click here to sign /10705.txt. Download Free PDF.

Abstract If we are what we eat, what might it mean if what we eat is not necessarily under our control? Related Papers. British Journal of … A review of consumer awareness, understanding and use of food-based dietary guidelines.

Public Health Nutrition Consumer testing of the preliminary paediatric food-based dietary guidelines for healthy children aged 1—7 years, among English- and Afrikaans-speaking mothers in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. Cohen, Advisor Kristen J. Gremillion Morgan C. Liu Jennifer L. My research—motivated by the pathways usa jobs application insightsquared wiki of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans— presents a qualitative analysis of 33 pictorial representations of food-based dietary guidelines FBDGs from around the world.

Jeffrey Cohen for his advisorship on this project, which ultimately began in the fall of in Anthropology of Food. I would also like to thank Drs. I am additionally indebted to Drs. Douglas Crews and Mark Hubbe for reading and commenting on various sections of my thesis over the last few years. I would insightssuared to extend my since gratitude and appreciation to the staff at the Oldways Preservation and Exchange Trust for continuing to grant my permissions request to include their Heritage Pyramids in my work and to Dr.

Michael Catholic School University of Detroit Jesuit High School American Journal of Physical Anthropology S60 Summary of microanalyzed national, government-endorsed FBDG images

 
 

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After the three days, the media was aspirated and replaced with 10 mL of fresh bone marrow macrophage media. On day 7 of culture, the spent media was aspirated and cells were washed with 1x PBS.

Cells were subjected to treatment with 0. Trypsinized cells were collected in a single tube and then centrifuged for 10 minutes at rpm. For analysis of effects of biofilms, 1×10 6 of the BMDCs were placed on top of attached biofilms for 4 hours. Curli-DNA complexes were prepared using the protocol previously described [ 85 ]. The fibers were pelleted by centrifugation rpm for 10 minutes at room temperature and resuspended in 10 mL Tris-HCL, pH 8 and boiled for 10 minutes.

Next, the fibers were pelleted rpm for 10 minutes at room temperature. Unless otherwise noted, curli-DNA complex isolated form S. Typhimurium IR msbB mutant was used to stimulate immortalized macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages. To generate the biofilms, overnight cultures of wild-type S. In some experiments, 2. Biofilms were visualized by generating overnight cultures of wildDtype or mutant S. Typhimurium diluted in LB No Salt. The biofilms were then inverted and adhered to a microscope slide.

Syto9 fluorescence was visualized at an excitation of and emission of Cells were stimulated with purified curli for 3 or 24 hours. To determine the effect of phagocytosis on type I IFN signaling, wild-type murine IMMs were seeded in a well plate polystyrene dish Costar, at 5×10 5 cells per well. After 1 hour, cells were stimulated with 2.

Primers used are listed in Table 1. The curli fibers were pelleted by centrifugation at 12, rpm for 5 minutes.

After 10 minutes of stimulation, cells were washed with sterile PBS three times and visualized using a Leica SP5 Microscope with a TCS confocal system using sequential scanning to prevent auto-fluorescence from multiple lasers. Cells were stimulated with Congo red-labeled curli for 1 hour. Fluorescence of Congo red-labeled curli was measured using Flex Station, Molecular Devices, at an excitation of nm and emission at nm. The fibrils were resuspended in remaining supernatant and loaded and sealed in quartz capillaries Mark-tubes, Hilgenberg, GmbH.

SAXS data were analyzed by plotting integrated scattering intensity against the momentum transfer q using Mathematica. Peak positions were measured by fitting diffraction peaks to a Lorentzian. Each week, mice were tail bled to collect serum samples. To investigate the role of cellulose in immune recognition of the curli-DNA complexes, overnight cultures of the cellulose lacking E.

This protocol was performed as previously described [ 23 ]. Briefly, a well plate Costar, was coated with 0. The plate was coated with 2. After washing, the biotinylated goat anti-mouse IgG Jackson ImmunoRes, was added, and samples were incubated at room temperature for 2 hours with gentle rocking, and then incubated with avidin-alkaline phosphate conjugate Sigma, A at room temperature for 2 hours. As a positive control, a serum from an old B6. Curli fibers purified from wild-type S.

Curl-DNA fibers purified from wild-type S. Cells were transferred to black-walled optical well plates, and RFU measured using Flex Station Molecular Devices at an excitation of nm and an emission nm. Typhimurium, bscE mutant , E. Colonies were visualized using a transilluminator. Typhimurium bscE mutant for 3 hours. We would like to thank Drs. Phil L. Cohen and Roberto Carrichio for their invaluable discussions of the project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Read article at publisher’s site DOI : JCI Insight , 7 5 :e, 08 Mar Cytokine , , 30 Jul Review Free to read. Int J Mol Sci , 22 16 , 23 Aug J Biol Chem , 1 , 26 May This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources. This data has been provided by curated databases and other sources that have cited the article. To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Infect Immun , 83 4 , 09 Feb Free to read.

PLoS Pathog , 18 8 :e, 16 Aug J Biol Chem , 20 , 02 Apr Immunity , 42 6 , 01 Jun Infect Immun , 80 12 , 01 Oct Microbiol Mol Biol Rev , 82 4 :e, 10 Oct Trends Microbiol , 27 11 , 15 Aug Contact us.

Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Search life-sciences literature 41,, articles, preprints and more Search Advanced search. This website requires cookies, and the limited processing of your personal data in order to function. By using the site you are agreeing to this as outlined in our privacy notice and cookie policy.

Search articles by 'Sarah A Tursi’. Tursi SA 1 ,. Lee EY 2 ,. Medeiros NJ 1 ,. Search articles by 'Michael H Lee’. Lee MH 1 ,. Search articles by 'Lauren K Nicastro’. Nicastro LK 1 ,. Search articles by 'Bettina Buttaro’. Buttaro B 1 ,. Gallucci S 1 ,. Search articles by 'Ronald Paul Wilson’. Wilson RP 1 ,. Search articles by 'Gerard C L Wong’. Wong GCL 2 ,. Affiliations 8 authors 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Abstract Bacterial biofilms are associated with numerous human infections.

Free full text. PLoS Pathog. Published online Apr PMID: Sarah A. Tursi , 1 Ernest Y. Lee , 2 Nicole J. Medeiros , 1 Michael H. Lee , 1 Lauren K. Ernest Y. Nicole J. Michael H. Lauren K. Gerard C. Brian K Coombes, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Nov 22; Accepted Mar This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:. S3 Fig: Congo red-labeled curli binding to macrophages. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Fig 2. Fig 3. Fig 4. Fig 5. Cellulose does not contribute to the autoimmune response generated against curli-DNA complexes Cellulose is another major component of the enteric biofilm extracellular matrix [ 49 , 50 ].

Fig 6. Bacterial strains and culture conditions Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain IR is a fully virulent, nalidixic acid-resistant strain derived from the ATCC strain [ 82 ]. Table 1 Primers used for qPCR. TIFF Click here for additional data file. S3 Fig Congo red-labeled curli binding to macrophages.

Disease to dirt: the biology of microbial amyloids. Schnabel J. Protein folding: The dark side of proteins. Amyloid adhesins are abundant in natural biofilms. Environ Microbiol. Curli biogenesis and function. Annu Rev Microbiol.

Genetic approaches to study of biofilms. Methods Enzymol. Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev. Bacterial biofilms and catheters: A key to understanding bacterial strategies in catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

Can J Infect Dis. Bacterial biofilm within diseased pancreatic and biliary tracts. Grund S, Weber A. A new type of fimbriae on Salmonella typhimurium. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. Small-molecule inhibitors target Escherichia coli amyloid biogenesis and biofilm formation.

From a specific Nordic perspective, this book asks whether it is possible to envisage new models of teaching and learning which take seriously both the responsibility to social justice and social wellbeing which underpinned a commitment to mass education of the 20th century, as well as to the radical challenges to traditional educational models offered by the new socio-technical spaces and practices of the 21st century.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Ola Erstad. Kristiina Kumpulainen. Pille Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt. Publisher : SensePublishers Rotterdam. Edition Number : 1. Topics : Education. Skip to main content. Search SpringerLink Search. For example, Jean Comaroff argues that despite proclaimed progress in post- apartheid South Africa, the existence of increasing rates of inequality may be due in large part to the combination of a neoliberal agenda and inherited industrial-capitalist economy Bangstad et al.

Those who are unable to reap the benefits of neoliberal policy are left to the margins the poor, i. What remains through constant replication in reality, then, are static though not necessarily unchangeable symbolic meanings with embedded cultural norms, unequal power relations, and by extension institutionalized inequality.

Inequality in South Africa also presents itself in the dualistic relationship of national citizen and ethnic subject or other, i. In the liberated scheme, individuals are concurrently free to do as they will as citizens of South Africa but are limited in their options before becoming ethnicized, stepping outside of the national group label and no longer simply being South African.

This reality brings to the forefront a similar question posed in the preceding section: who gets to determine who belongs? The confluence of symbolic anthropology and political economy permits an analysis of models of and for reality, and why things must be and ought to be a certain way. These models are comprised of component parts that reflect ideologies, the totality of which is historically grounded and placed in cultural context.

The selection, allocation, and eventual organization of instrumental symbols into a core dominant symbol are inherently acts of political negotiation. Such power is controlled and mediated by a dominant and hierarchically superior class, which wields its power to create a hegemonic culture. In this process of transferring decision-making power to the individual, the veil of neoliberalism masks the economic, political, and social conditions governed by the dominant.

I based my initial selection of these specific images on the countries and FBDGs that others before me had previously reviewed e. Current FBDGs of 16 countries comprised my sample. All of these countries have since updated or completely changed their FBDG presentations.

Moreover, the pictorial representation of Japan was added because it had not existed in Finally, five pyramids produced by the Oldways Heritage Pyramids.

This collection highlights global variation through the visualization of culturally- specific ways of presenting dietary recommendations. Concurrently, these images reveal similar patterns in terms of how guidance is displayed for general, national audiences. Different formats food plate, food pyramid, food pagoda, etc. My log appears in Table 4 see Appendix A. The inventory categories I used were influenced by those developed by Painter et al.

My sample, however, reveals a different pattern when only considering national, government-endorsed FBDGs: the data indicate countries around the world have transitioned their FBDG formats to observe a circular or plate model.

This is in contrast to previous studies which note the popularity of the traditional pyramid. For example, Montagnese et al. Of the 12 images Painter et al. The Korean pagoda image they analyzed also changed to a bicycle format which is also known as the food balance wheels. I build upon John Collier and Malcolm Collier who used photography and photo essays as an approach to anthropological description e.

Using the unstructured, open viewing approach, I surveyed my data individually, in pairs, and as a collective, breaking up the data into different configurations. I coupled my unstructured analysis with a structured one, looking for salient features based on perceived similarities and differences, as well as attributes previous researchers had reviewed. Focusing my analysis on these attributes of interest helped me make the move toward a structured, comparative approach of my data.

My findings from this stage of research appear in Table 4 of Appendix A. I then conducted microanalyses of seven of the 33 FBDG representations I reviewed, as the questions of my structured analysis became more refined Collier and Collier I selected one national, government-endorsed pictorial representation from each continent except Antarctica from the initial pool to comprise a representative sample that accounts for equal geographic distribution and a variety of FBDG formats.

These seven images, presented in Table 1, exemplify worldwide variation in terms of what governments consider healthy eating, as well as what visual cues are deemed appropriate to illustrate dietary guidance. I relied on supplementary articles to instigate and further refine insights I gleaned from each image Collier and Collier In so doing, I drew upon strengths and attributes of microanalysis, i. The Japanese guide does not have a non-governmental counterpart and is available in both Japanese and English I reviewed the English version.

The Japanese guide provided an initial orientation to FBDG messages through constituent and composite symbols. From there, I moved on to Venezuela and Canada, whose governments have elected to use culturally-defined symbols relevant to the needs and ideals of their indigenous populations.

These cases exemplify ethnic diversity and the necessity for understanding FBDG images within specific cultural and political systems. My analysis then switches focus from the images themselves to those who have the capacity to sway symbolic construction and positionality. By comparing the government-sponsored representations of Australia, France, and the United States against available independent, non-governmental, and alternative FBDG images, I reveal discrepancies between the two groups.

I assume such differences are motivated by competing interests. Otherwise, uniform guidelines should theoretically produce more similar images since developers work with the same source material, i. I conclude my analysis with the food program of Brazil, which has taken a markedly different approach by electing to focus on meals and not nutrients Barton Brazil also limits its use of images to examples of composed meals and does not have a single FBDG representation.

This example provides a tangible, though perhaps problematic, alternative to the images currently being developed throughout the world and further illustrates the need to consider geographic resources and food diversity when creating dietary guidelines. Greater intake comes from the grain dishes illustrated on the widest band. Items to be consumed in least quantities milk and fruits are positioned at the bottom.

This suggests these food groups are still important to maintain a balanced diet but only in moderation. The running graphic upon what appears to be a track and the counter-clockwise arrow suggests running and motion. Both are integral to a balanced lifestyle. The blue arc recognizes the importance of moderation and signals the place of snacks, confections, and beverages, while the handle of the top i. It is based on the Dietary Guidelines for Japanese and was released to the general public in The image and its dish-based approach are comprehensible to both cooks and eaters, as nutrients become invisible to the consumer and foods are not necessarily eaten in isolation Yoshiike et al.

Consumption tends to be viewed in terms of mixed foods or complete meals instead of simply consuming a serving of rice or fish, for example. Figure 8. Venezuelan Trompo de los Alimentos Food Figure 9. The National Institute of Nutrition INN holds responsibility for choosing those groups that should be eaten in greater or lesser abundance. Starches appear in the upper-most band, which indicates their importance in the overall diet.

Images of fruits and vegetables grouped together in green convey the recommendation to eat these in greater quantities than others below it. Here, the cord or guaral has been replaced by a stream of water, suggesting the necessity of water consumption.

Images of three silhouettes engaging in cardiovascular exercise place additional emphasis on physical activity. The Trompo Indigena replicates the same color scheme as the former, and presents similar food groups. Notably, the animal-source group depicted in the blue band includes alligator, capybara, and turtle.

The inclusion of a hunting spear pointed at the water and a canoe in motion suggest activities performed by indigenous consumers, replacing those suggested in the national illustration. In Canada, both the federal- and territorial-level governments share responsibility for health care and food guidance Jeppesen et al.

The FBDG is laid out in a rainbow format and is the front page of a six-page booklet. The image features four differently colored and sized bands with graphics that represent different foods including fresh, processed, and frozen examples. These versions take into account shared available resources based on geography. Published in , the circle-formatted FBDG illustration uses the same colors as the national FBDG, but divides the circle into four equal quadrants that circumscribe a central circle.

The very center of the image emphasizes such traditional food- based practices as ice fishing and smoking meat. Additionally, many of the food images represent other Aboriginal foods Jeppesen et al. Recommended serving sizes are included in the NWT food guide and each section is labeled and accompanied by a rationale for consuming each group: milk and milk substitutes for strong bones and teeth; meat, fish, birds and eggs and all edible parts for strong muscles; bannock, bread and cereal for energy; and fruit and vegetables for good eyes and skin and less infection.

The center of this guide features images of what appears to be a caribou superimposed on the sun. Additionally, J. Considered with the sun which tends to symbolize life and appears for large portions of the day in northwestern Canada, I argue these icons refer to the importance of outdoor life and activity in relation to food and health, while establishing federal and territorial endorsement for the FBDG image.

Items that typify Nunavut diets and resources are included on the NFG, with emphasis placed on the traditional. The country foods page emphasizes the ideology that country foods are inherently healthy choices and traditional ways of eating are balanced. Consumption of any of these country foods is a healthy decision. The concern the Nunavut government raises is the fact that only certain parts of animals are purchased at the store.

Balance is attained from selecting from the 4 food groups Nunavut HSS Each circle represents a food group and correlated recommendations for healthy eating. The South African model represents what should be eaten, as opposed to what should be avoided Vorster n.

It includes traditional foods shared across generations, genders, races, and ethnic groups, as well as affordable choices which could be made by poorer individuals Vorster n. Sugar, sweetened foods and drinks, and salt are not embedded in the image. This graphic may be compared to that of Australia and France, for example. South African Food Group Circles Department of Health Food groups are not written on the FBDG image itself, but are otherwise indicated in the accompanying FBDG: starchy foods; vegetables and fruits; dry beans, peas, lentils and soya; chicken, fish, meat and eggs; milk, maas and yoghurt; fat and oil; water Vorster et al.

The central group is comprised of various grains and starches, as exemplified by ethnically-diverse staples as corn meal, rice, potatoes, and bread. The largest of the seven circles, these starchy foods make up a relatively large part of the suggested South African 23I consider age requirements an important metric to consider when taking into account the number of FBDGs a nation develops to reach its population.

Fresh fruits and vegetables are pictured in the next largest circle; the total consumed volume should be somewhat equal to that of starches, as the circle is slightly smaller. By contrast, legumes, animal proteins, and dairy products, are to be consumed in relatively smaller quantities, as suggested by their smaller circle sizes. Socioeconomic realities and matters of convenience also appear in this graphic, as different foods are packaged in boxes, bags, cans, plastic jugs, and cartons.

Not everyone can afford fresh ingredients. The smallest category is made up of fats and oils. Influenced by the Other? I present in this section alternative, non-government-endorsed models produced by NGOs. These images are examined in addition to national, government-endorsed images.

Each slice represents one of the five core food groups Smith et al. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Figure Varying slice sizes indicate different proportions of consumption despite the lack of specifically recommended amounts. Each slice exemplifies a variety of food choices, with otherwise ambiguous items labeled with text. The graphic includes an unspecified amount of water consumption, as well as images of foods that should be consumed regularly in small amounts.

Since its initial release in , the group continued to develop its graphic through five iterations. The new pyramid does not include qualitative recommendations for consumption. Restrictions on salt and added sugars are clearly labeled in a separate box. The italicized recommendation to enjoy dietary variation and daily activity underlines the pyramid.

The largest wedge of the government-sponsored Australian Guide to Healthy Eating places visual emphasis on grain and cereal food consumption. Each step explicitly suggests more or less generic foods which typify each category e.

A magnifying glass at the bottom-right of the graphic emphasizes the recommendation to limit consumption of sugar, fats, and salt. Non-food-based recommendations also appear on the FBDG representation. At the top of the staircase is a faucet with flowing water and the recommendation to drink water at- will. PNNS is one of the lead organizations responsible for its production; it is also one of the largest logos included at the base of the staircase.

An interactive website, www. This corresponds with the 9 steps of everyday consumer guidelines, i. Souccar and Houlbert suggest each 5-year iteration of the National Nutrition and Health Program has been re-launched with the same goals, leadership, and results. They further argue that national food programs do not represent a nutritional ideal, despite the call upon governmental organizations to develop dietary recommendations Souccar and Houlbert Instead, Souccar and Houlbert claim these resultant FBDGs offer abusive simplifications and surprising advice based on a reliance on outdated knowledge, inequivalent metrics e.

Souccar and Houlbert present their Pyramide Alimentaire Food Pyramid [Figure 19] 25 as reflective of a more nutritionally sound set of dietary recommendations. The foundational base is comprised of 1.

Tiers emphasize daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, starches, oils and fats, and dairy products. The authors also integrated vegetarian and vegan food habits into the Pyramide Alimentaire: tiers are foods of animal origin and are not obligatory, as indicated by the starting recommendation of zero for each of these food groups.

It is also published on the independent, non-governmental website www. Portion sizes generally differ between the two. The Pyramide Alimentaire offers the flexibility to exclude the consumption of certain food groups, including grains and starches. Interestingly, the baguette—a strong symbol of French culinary and cultural identity—appears in near-center focus in the Escalier, but is grouped in the occasionally-consumable category at the top of the Pyramide.

The image sought to simplify previous dietary recommendations and create a standardized set of base recommendations which could then be later personalized. Each quadrant represents a different food group: fruits, grains, protein, and vegetables. The MyPlate retains the same color scheme as its immediate predecessor to color code each food group.

There is also a distinctive lack of visual cues that exemplify what constitutes a food group. Instead, relative proportion sizes convey mealtime composition, as opposed to overall daily food and intake. However, neither acronym nor their respective logos appear on the icon. Instead, consumers are directed to the website ChooseMyPlate. Visitors are presented with an interactive experience that personalizes dietary recommendations based on age, sex, and activity level.

Explanations of the MyPlate and the component food groups provide quantitative and qualitative data that are not otherwise conveyed in the FBDG illustration. While its simplicity can be commended, nutritionists have criticized the model as an opportunity lost to actually influence changes toward healthier diets Willett and Ludwig ; see Chiuve and Willett regarding the MyPyramid. Additional criticism has been placed on American food guides as bending to the influence of outside interests, including but not limited to various sectors of the food industry Nestle ; Willett and Ludwig In her account, it was clear meat and dairy producers had a hand in stalling the release of the original pyramid and ultimately influenced its final design: this pivotal moment brought about concerns of the political nature of FBDGs and its effect on the objective science that was supposed to ground dietary guidance in the United States.

It remains evident more than two decades later that the USDA faces a conflict of interest between promoting agricultural products and advising the public about making health food choices Nestle , Dairy consumption persists as a key dietary recommendation though consumption has decreased over time Stewart et al. This is despite calls for its repeal from the icon and guidelines altogether given the lack of evidence for its necessity e. The same may be said, too, of those with gluten allergies or who practice a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle.

The perceived lack of choice is interesting given the directive to go to the ChooseMyPlate. Of interest here is the pictorial replacement of the glass of milk with a glass of water, both of which share the blue color-coding. Otherwise, dairy recommendations are ignored altogether.

The Healthy Eating Plate also more clearly articulates recent advice to consume larger quantities of vegetables. Finally, a figure in red encourages physical activity.

Figure This is evidenced by similar photos exemplifying specific food groups, as well as perceived similarities in terms of pyramid composition and hierarchical organization of food groups. Individuals in each image are also more phenotypically representative of the populations that might refer to these heritage pyramids.

Linguistic diversity is also portrayed through the use of both English and Spanish text in the case of the Latin American pyramid. Doing so could be otherwise viewed as exclusionary to those who do not understand their reference. In this chapter, I have microanalyzed seven national, government-sponsored FBDG pictorial representations. I paid particular attention to such attributes as the format used to organize food groups, the selection and placement of these groups, the types of food used to exemplify these groups, and the meaning specific images as symbols convey in terms of dietary guidance.

I limited comparisons to those shared between or among FBDGs of the same country. In this process, I have recognized trends shared between different groups of pictorial representations. These findings are my focus in the following chapter, which I ground in anthropological theory. Differences in pictorial representations among countries reveal a range of variation that translates to varying conceptions of national identity, whereas in- country variation suggests negotiations of power.

Variation among and between Pictorial Representations of FBDGs Recent research on FBDG formats has suggested that overall shape does not necessarily lead to more effective or efficient means of conveying dietary guidance Hess et al.

It is apparent upon review of the seven images I microanalyzed, though, that certain messages have a higher degree of salience. Ultimately, shape does matter to an extent. This is especially the case for the alternative models I reviewed. Pyramids are typically read top down, beginning with a recommendation of restriction, i. At the wider base, recommendations suggest increased consumption of that particular food group.

The hierarchy in this model places the most important foods toward the bottom. In contrast, the inverted pyramid, spinning top images of Japan and Venezuela reverse this approach. The widest band is read first, which I interpret as a recommendation of encouraging consumption. At the tip of these formats are two food groups which do not necessarily signal as restrictions, but more so as necessities for a well-balanced diet. Movement cannot occur without their inclusion.

Here, the hierarchy places important foods first. Principal recommendations tend to reveal themselves in one of two ways. The more common signal is the area of space taken up by the largest segment or slice of the image. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, for example, shows that grains and starches should be consumed in slightly larger amounts than vegetables.

The South African guide also conveys both moderation and proportion through its use of differently-sized circles and side-by-side placement to one another. It further articulates a hierarchy of foods, placing water consumption at the top. This suggests water is a primary recommendation. The second signal of an important recommendation within the circle format is the direction toward its center. Variations in terms of both foods and formats have led to differing conceptions of what comprises healthy dietary practice.

A Symbolic Anthropologist Take In this thesis, FBDG images are ritual symbols that can be analyzed within the context of healthy behaviors such as dieting and exercising. Healthy eating and daily physical activity share many attributes with ritual. All FBDG pictorial representations are dominant, composite images composed of instrumental, constituent or component images that can stand for something else. Composite FBDG illustrations still represent models of healthy dietary practice, regardless of how such component parts as colors, images, and shapes are arranged or presented.

These instrumental symbols i. An example of a chicken illustrates the distinction between dominant and instrumental symbols. A picture of a chicken represents a chicken. The inclusion of these symbols and the category of protein indicate the recommendation that eating these items or eating from this food group is important to good health.

Situating proteins below another group in a traditional pyramid structure conveys greater consumption due to its hierarchical arrangement.

How composite images are placed and component FBDG representations are illustrated creates relationships which translate to different recommendations for what to consume in order to eat a healthy diet. Pictorial representations of dietary guidance fulfill both categories, as these dominant symbols summarize research and dietary recommendations and ultimately stand for the system of healthy eating.

It is important to recognize that FBDG images are not simply collections of visual objects representing abstract or cerebral ideas Turner FBDG pictorial representations are responses to such non-communicable diseases as the worldwide obesity epidemic and must therefore be adhered to lest citizens want to maintain global patterns of ill health Jeppesen et al.

To view healthy eating as a cultural system is to explore the interconnected relationship among the symbol the FBDG illustration , society, and the individual Pals Pictorial representations of FBDGs are the systems of symbols I analyze, their meaning of which emerges as symbols operate in public space Geertz b Concurrently, the reality of increasing levels of NCD susceptibility motivates behavioral, corrective change toward healthy eating and daily exercise.

Individuals in that case are told how they should behave in order to be healthy citizens. The separate images of FBDG representations create a series of relationships to be interpreted and ultimately negotiated by the individual: one makes the choice to eat or not eat what is presented.

This decision may be grounded in multiple realities—political, economic, etc. Norms are determined by and in relation to the state and various stakeholders.

The specific selection of FBDG images signifies varying degrees of relations to the state and the power to decide what is a core component of the group. The Political Economy of FBDG Pictorial Representations The political economy of FBDG pictorial representations emphasizes the construction of the images themselves both composite and component and considers each 27Another way to view this is to consider the difference between considering FBDGs as synonymous to being healthy model of and adhering to FBDGs in order to be healthy model for.

FBDG imagery thus embodies emic and etic sensibilities Mintz In my thesis, the etic meanings of pictorial representations are analogous to their positional meaning Turner Individuals ultimately have the agency to adhere to the FBDGs, or parts of it, but the decision to make healthy choices according to national guidelines is restricted by the food groups and recommendations presented on the pictorial representation, as well as the very people making these recommendations.

FBDG development is grounded in scientific research and aims to address national health concerns such as obesity and other non-communicative diseases Montagnese et al. However, this is not necessarily the case in practice. It seems that alternative, non-government-endorsed models tend to more closely align with science-based, nutritional data.

This interpretation is furthered by the historic trend of national FBDGs being influenced by multiple actors and influences, as in the case of South Africa Vorster et al. By including rice on the pictorial representation, the need is created to continue the production and consumption of rice.

Whether these are grains, meats, dairy, or sugars, the development of pictorial representations is rife with political and economic negotiations to make content as many parties as possible.

Carey Noland and M. The result […] has left the U. It is also important to consider the appropriateness for those with lactose intolerance to follow the guidelines Davis et al.

Perhaps there is truth that industrial motivation for contributing to FBDG development is to maximize profit Layman Inequality exists within and outside of pictorial representations of FBDGs. Through the constant reproduction of FBDG illustrations which favor business, relatively little to no attention is given to these marginalized populations; as a result, disparities rise in terms of health and well-being. FBDGs thus reproduce profit and power relations between nation and citizen, placing consumers in a position of symbolic violence, where they are subjected to the nation.

Returning to the example of milk in the United States, what could it mean for consumers who must make the choice to forego milk due to their lactose intolerance? Moreover, the FBDGs speak to larger systemic issues of economics and institutionalized inequality, raising concerns of whether individuals can even afford— financially, politically, etc.

A poignant vignette presented by John James, Julia Brown, and Margaret Douglas highlights how one inner city mother had to continue resorting to prostitution in order to feed her children the healthy diet that was heavily promoted to her. Another reality expressed through FBDG images is the convenience of certain goods over others. Prepackaged foods in frozen, canned, and boxed form appear in the Australian, Canadian, French, and South African representations. The Nunavut Food Guide further highlights the point by outright dividing natural, healthy foods from store-bought ones.

The question of what constitutes inherently food is not the principal subject matter of my thesis, but it does illuminate the considerations of what counts as food and how food should be counted. Coupled with other forms of power namely, tactical or organizational power [Wolf ] , exploring the political economy of FBDG illustrations means beginning to unveil the conditions by which individuals maintain or change their eating habits in accordance with the dietary recommendations illustrated by the food guides Mintz Government-sponsored FBDG images symbolize national identity and state hegemony.

Colors are also indicators of government sponsorship and national identity. I contend these color choices are important to consider beyond symbolizing dietary diversity Colmenares n. The Venezuelan color palette can be viewed as a stamp of government involvement and endorsement.

At the very least, these cues make dietary guidance relevant and culturally appealing to consumers, an attribute that is important for successful FBDG implementation Neuhauser et al. In building a national identity, the norms of the dominant group tend to ignore such populations as lower income individuals, those with various dietary restrictions for religious or health reasons, and ethnic groups.

This brings to mind the dualistic conflict of nationalism and citizenship. While governments in Canada and Venezuela have produced FBDG images for their indigenous populations, it is worth considering what this means for conceptions of otherness.

Or what does it mean to be an indigenous individual living in contemporary Venezuela? Indigenous consumers are situated in a space of otherness similar to what Comaroff and Comaroff regard as the national-ethnic dualism discussed earlier, i. It is this negotiation, in the context of citizenship and decision-making, which undergirds my analysis of consuming and constructing material and symbolic culture, to wit, pictorial representations of food-based dietary guidelines.

This discussion considers the role of the neoliberal state Comaroff and Comaroff , which tends to put the onus of good health and citizenship on the individual and not the government itself. The burden, however, is upon FBDG developers to establish visually sound recommendations; if individuals fully adhere to the guidelines and still fall ill, the blame is not at least entirely on them but on the government for producing the FBDG.

Meanwhile, systemic inequalities pose serious challenges to the potential of full acceptance and adherence. The situation then becomes even more problematic when considering the degree to which individuals can take on the identity of national citizen if they cannot follow or choose not to follow the guidelines, or are instead relegated to the title of ethnic subject not of the norm.

This brings us now to consider whether consumers are dominated citizens caught in a web of symbolic violence constructed by the dominant i. Such distinctions return us to consider FBDGs and their representations as forms of cultural capital, whereby power is given to those who have the capacity to develop and construct culture.

In so doing, the state maintains its hegemonic construction of cultural and physical health and well-being. This could inherently mean that preferencing the latter ulu means becoming more physiologically Canadian. In considering the place of food industry sectors and outside influences in developing FBDGs and accompanying images, one question in particular is worth considering: are there too many cooks in the kitchen see Davis et al.

It is well documented from sources throughout the world that various stakeholders influence FBDG designs and their accompanying pictorial representations e.

As others have suggested, this results from conflicts of interest e. The food industry has a heavy hand in reproducing cultures of consumption which favor them. In recognizing various co-sponsors and special interest groups, cooperation and coordination of resources and input are necessary.

Governments should rely on objective scientific data when designing and implementing their FBDGs and accompanying pictorial representations, but are prone to outside influences. At the time of Painter et al. Its first recommendations were published in and revised in The page guide includes photos of freshly prepared meals corresponding with traditional recipes. In Brazil, composed meals become symbols of regional and national identity, where nutrients disappear from the forefront of food choice akin to the Japanese spinning food top guide and decision-making and industrial preferences are practically non-existent.

The use of many photos of meals clearly emphasizes and celebrates geographic and culinary diversity. Nevertheless, it is incongruent with an analysis of stand-alone images meant to summarize and elaborate dietary recommendations. But perhaps this is a good thing. As many countries around the world have developed FBDGs, there are many more images I could have explored.

A random sample of available FBDGs and their representations should elucidate statistically significant conclusions.

There are many possible directions for further research. First, it is important to better understand how individuals interact with and respond to FBDGs, i. Ethnographic interviews with consumers would certainly aid in collecting pertinent data to derive meaning and understand symbolic analyses of power, control, and the cultural assumptions that organize food. By comparing these images, and drawing upon the consensus of Collier and Collier and other visual anthropologists, common trends should emerge from that corpus of data.

Additionally, contrasts should also materialize in terms of the culturally-specific choices individuals might make in designing their image and defining healthy eating for themselves. Photo essays composed via ethnographic interviews with informants should further reveal their decision-making power or lack thereof , in terms of what symbols they chose to use. Research in any and all of these fields would certainly aid in the development of future FBDGs. Finally, this research has practical applications for fieldwork in other areas.

What is the place of fried food if an individual or community has high cholesterol? If society places value on drinking milk, but an individual is lactose intolerant, what should be made of that symbol?

The intersection of biology and culture also brings to light questions of food fusion and culinary heritage. How could foods be made healthier while retaining their cultural meaning? Food technology and nutritional science may pave the way for some of the concerns, but they return us to the question of what counts as food.

And with industries having a stake in the success of advancements in food science, what does that mean in terms of what will be presented in future FBDG representations? As climate change forges on, what role can FBDGs and accompanying images as archival tools? How different will our conceptions of health be in the future? Ethnographers once cataloged food as another cultural component alongside kinship structures and spiritual practices.

Today, food is also read as a consumed symbol of biological nourishment, embodying and signifying what it means to be what one eats Fischler I conducted a theoretically-grounded, qualitative analysis of pictorial representations of food-based dietary guidelines to define symbols and meaning. I surveyed contemporary national FBDG images and selected seven illustrations from that group to demonstrate the symbolic meaning and political economy of those representations.

Composite structures, such as the trompo, staircase, and plate carry specific meanings to those who understand their cultural reference. It becomes clear when comparing the FBDGs worldwide that each component image, its placement relative to one another, and the overall shape within which these pieces interact convey inherently different dietary recommendations and approaches to responding to various health concerns.

In the most ideal of circumstances, they do so in such a way as to influence those who view, understand, and act upon them. If a picture is worth a thousand words, what is being conveyed through FBDG images, and whose voice is speaking? Questions like these motivate the analysis of pictorial representations of food-based dietary guidelines. The exploration of FBDG images reveals that as a collective, these key summarizing and elaborating symbols Ortner reflect human variation, but fail to reach consumers who might use them.

I understand FBDG images as constitutive of cultural systems. Each symbol is an image that suggests more than just dietary recommendations; it correlates to economic, political, and sociocultural realities that can come at odds with current scientific data or even cause conflict between these realities.

Each symbol is understood differently according to its context and the needs and experiences of its viewer. FBDG images are complex and open to myriad interpretations that can lead to misunderstanding and misuse. Consumers have the agency to make choices, drawing from experiences and what they want to believe and follow rather than simply following what is suggested Asp Power, as it is claim here, is transferred from those who decide what is culturally appropriate and nutritionally sound to those who adapt, buy into, or reject such schema.

FBDGs indicate, systemic inequalities and resource access influences the ability to follow dietary recommendations Dibsdall et al.

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